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Full text of "Richard Frotscher's almanac and garden manual for the southern states"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices, 




THE WORLD'S 

IiMrial aiil Cotton Ceitoniial Expsition 



which will open in New Orleans, on the sixteenth of December, 1884, and continue 
during a period of six months, promises to be the largest and most successful con- 
vention of the masters in the arts and sciences, manufactures and agriculture, 
ever held in the world. 

I present to my readers an excellent engraving of the front elevation of the 
main building, the largest ever erected, covering thirty three acres of ground. 
It is 1378 X 905 feet. - 

The following table will show that this is the largest Exposition building ever 
erected : 

The Crvstal Palace, Svdenham, London, 1862 .1,400,000 feet. 

The London Exposition, 1851 989,884 "' 

The Paris Exposition, 1855 545,934 " 

The Paris Exposition, 18G3 450,923 " 

The Yienna Exposition, 1873 430,500 " 

The Philadelphia Main Building, 1876 872,320 " 

The Atlanta Exposition. 1881 107,520 " 

The Louisville Southern Exposition, 1883-84 677,400 " 

The World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial, at Xew 

Orleans, 1884, Main Building alone 1,656,030 " 

There are several other large edifices, making together quite a village. 
The Government Building is 885x565 feet, the Horticultural Hall is 600x194 
feet, the Factories and Mills is 350x120 feet, and the Mexican National Headquar- 
ters is 300x190 feet. These figures are immense, and can scarcely be appreciated 
by those who have not seen the buildings. 

Up to the 20th of October over 23,000 exhibitors had applied for space, insur- 
ing inhabitants for "our village," which will undoubtedly be a busy as well as 
interesting place. 

These exhibitors come from every State and Territory in the Union, and fKom 
nearly every known foreign country," giving a rare opportunity for an exchange of 
ideas, which will lead to new developments, and an onward 'march in the affairs 
of the human race. 

The Exposition will be held at the Upper City Park, a beautiful tract of land 
Ijdng between St. Charles Avenue on the north, and the Missis3ipv">i River on the 
south. The buildings front east towards the main portion of the City. 

The grounds may be reached by the cars of the Camp audPrytania. Magazine, 
Annunciation, Tchoupitoulas, Canal and Coliseum, and the Carrollton Companies, 
all of which leave Canal Street, and take passengers directly to the gates of the 
Exposition. 



^v 






S 




^i^-AND^^ 









I' 



-f^oif^SEl^X - Bl:*£T^^.4- 



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DESraNATED 



'^o '-]«i-'c bi:cct"ioiv:i ^oz- I'lVc GtcCl't-uatloM/ of *^'^ec|Gl"a fife:), 
a:^ prcicl'.iccb in l"PiC Soiilfi. 



Entered acoordiug to Act of Congress by Richard Frotschee, in the office of the Librarian 
at Washington, in the year 1877. 



WAREHOUSE : 

jNI^OS, iy AM© IJ Pu MaIMB StP^BBTj^ 
Near the French Market, 

NEV oi^EiE^;qns- 1^. 



GEO. MULLKR, PKINTER, 48 BIENVILLE ST . N. O. 



k 



INTEODUOTION. 



The cultivation of vegetables for sale grows annually in impor- 
tance in the South, improved cars and rapid transit giving our farmers 
the advantage of distant markets increasing both the demand for "gar- 
den truck" and the profit on its cultivation. 

This has added to the interest felt in the questions, "what to culti- 
vate ?" and "how to do it ?''— and in my Almanac and Garden Manual I 
have carefully considered these points in all their bearings, and have 
given directions as to the i^roper time and methods of cultivating vege- 
tables in the South. 

The encomiums bestowed upon past numbers of my Almanac and 
Garden Manual, and the success met by those who have followed the 
directions therein, attest the merits of the publication, and are to me 
gratifying testimonials that my efforts have tended to build up, expand 
and make remunerative this branch of Southern industry. 

From all parts of the South have come to me endorsements of the 
utility and correctness of my informations, and compliments to my 
enterprise and energy, for all of which I tender my grateful acknowl- 
edgments. 

Quietly and without desire for show, I have pursued my business 
aiming by integrity, promptness and strict attention to the interests of 
my patrons, to merit the confidence and good will of the community 
in general, and the very liberal and constantly increasing patronage 
received is a practical and pleasant proof that I have succeeded. 

During the time of our Great Centennial Exposition, I expect and 
hope that thousands of ray readers will visit New Orleans, and I here- 
by extend to them a cordial invitation to call at my store, when I will 
be pleased to show them such courtesies as are in my power. 

Assuring my patrons that their continued favors will be duly ap- 
preciated, and that no effort will be spared to make my Almanac and 
Garden Manual annually of more benefit and assistance to the garden- 
ers of the South, 

I am, 

yours truly, 

EICHAED FROTSCHEE. 



Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



SEEDS BY MAIL. 



Seeds can be sent by mail to any part of the United States in 
packages not exceeding four pounds, at sixteen cents per pound or 
one cent per ounce or fraction thereof. On seeds ordered in papers 
or by the ounce I prepay the postage, except on peas, beans and corn. 
This refers to large sized papers which are sold at one dollar per dozen. 
When ordered "by the pound sixteen cents per pound postage has to 
be added to the price of the seeds. Peas, beans and corn, thirty cents 
per quart 

All packages are put up in the most careful manner, and every 
]>recaution taken to insure their reaching their destination in safety. 
Purchasers living at any place where my seeds are not sold, are re- 
quested to write to me to obtain their supplies. This will be more 
profitable than to buy from country stores where seeds left on com- 
mission are often kept till all power of germination is destroyed. 
As seed merchants, who give out their goods on commission, rarely 
collect what is not sold, oftener than once every twelve or eighteen 
months, and as Lettuce, Spinach, Parsnip, Carrots, and many other 
Seeds will either not sprout at all or grow imperfectly if kept over a 
summer in the South ; to buy and plant such is but money, time and 
labor wasted. 

Herie in our climate, where we plant garden vegetables as freely 
in autumn as in spring, and where often the seeds have to be put in the 
ground when the weather is very warm, it is an indispensable necessity 
to have perfectly fresh seeds. 

My arrangements with my growers are made so that I receive tlie 
new crop, expressly cleaned for me, as soon as it is matured. The 
varieties which are not raised in the Xorth, I order from Europe, and 
have them shipped so as to reach me about the beginning of x4LUgust. 
just the time they are needed for fall planting. By following this plan 
I have always a full supply of fresh seeds of undoubted germinating 
qualities, while dealers who sell on commission have only those left 
from the winter previous. 

It cannot be too well impressed on the minds of all cultivators of 
vegetables, that seeds kept through a summer in this climate k'UI not 
grow, and that all who use such seeds will be losers. 

All seeds that leave my establishment are thoroughly tested, and 
warranted to grow. 

Having received a great many complaints that letters which con- 
tained money addressed to me never reached me, I would caution my 
customers not to send any money in letters without registering same. 
By sending one dollar or upward the cost, ten cents, can be charged to 
me. The cheapest and surest way is money order or draft, but where 
they cannot be had, letters have to be registered, which can be done at 
any Post Office. 



For the Southern Staten. 



A Few Remarks on Raising Vegetables for Shipping. 



Within tlie past few years the raising of early vegetables for ship- 
ping West, has become quite an item in the neighborhood of New 
Orleans. We have advantages here, which are not found elsewhere, 
for that branch of industry. Freights have been reduced to all points 
from here, and special cars, built expressly for carrying green vegetables 
and fruit, have been put on the Railroads. We are earlier here than 
at any other point, and with the rich ground we have and the large 
supply of manure, to be had for the hauling only, early vegetables can 
be raised very successfully. 

Ahnost every kind of vegetables are shipped from here, but Beans, 
Cucumbers, Beets, Tomatoes, Cabbage and Peas, form the bulk. In 
regard to Beans, most gardeners make the mistake of planting com- 
mon Red Beans, when they should plant Dwarf Wax or Valentine, 
which find much more ready sale and better prices than the first 
named. In the way of Cucumbers the Improved White Spine is the 
best variety, as it bears abundantly ; and as it keeps its color, is better 
adapted for shipping than, any other. I have been supplying the 
largest growers in that line with seed, the stock of which cannot be 
surpassed in quality. Of Beets only the dark red Blood Turnip or the 
Egyptian should be planted for shipping purpose- The Egyptian is a 
very quick growing variety and sliouhl not be sown quite so early as 
the Blood Turnip, which ought to be sown in September and October; 
for the former variety January is time enough. 

For Tomatoes the Extra Early Dw^arf comes in bearing first, but 
should be i)lanted only for the first crop, as when lai'ge varieties come 
in the market, the former do not sell as w^ell. Great improvements 
have been made of late years in Tomatoes ; the varieties raised and in- 
troduced by Livingston's Sons are perfect, and hardly any improve- 
ment can be made on such varieties as the Paragon and Favorite. New 
Orleans is not a good point to ship Tomatoes from, they hardly ever 
arrive at destination in good condition. Along the Jackson R. R., where 
the land is more sandy, a better article is raised for shipping. Lettuce 
is shipped quite extensively ; the Improved Passion is used principally 
for that purjiose. 

Potatoes and Onions are shipped in large quantities ; but the for- 
mer are very uncertain in regard to prices. Late shipped Onions 
generally pay better than those shipped too early. The market often 
gets overstocked with vegetables, but never in the spring of the year 
as long as they can be shipped, and the planting at that time is more 
remunerative than at any other. 

There is a broad field yet to growers of vegetables for shipping. 

The past season has been a good one for shippers. Late cabbage 
paid exceedingly well ; also Beets, Onions, Peas and early Potatoes- 
Cucumbers paid well ; but, owing to late cold weather, did not bear as 



Bk'hard FrotscTiers Almanac and Garden Manaal 



well as in other years. Beans were spotted, and arrived in bad order at 
destination, owing to continued rains in spring. 

Gardeners and others who contemplate raising Yegetables for ship- 
pin u', are in^^ited to give me a call. From the fact that all staple articles 
are raised for me by contract, in such sections best suited to mature the 
varieties we need for oui- climate, and the interest I take in the seed 
business, coupled with the thorough knowledge of the same, enables 
me to assist in making selections of seed for that purpose. The inter- 
est of my customers and mine are identical. My stock is .the best 
selected and largest in the South. 




xtr^P^r^^s^ 



For the Southern States. 



1st Month, 



JANUARY, 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the JLatitude of the Southerr\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Full Moon Id. 12h. 6m. 

Last Quarter. 7d. lOh. 16m . 

New Moon 16d. 3h. 16m. 

First Quarter 23d. 8h. 6m. 

Full Moon 30d. llh. Om. 



Forenoon. 

Evening. 

Morning. 

Afternoon. 

ForenQop. 



DAY 

0¥ 

Mouth &Weeli 


Sun 
rises. 

h. m 


Suu 

sets. 

h. m. 


i^oo'i CHRONOLOGY 
r. & s. _oj,_ 

h m. IMPORTANT EVENTS. 


1 
2 
3 


Thurs. 
Frid. 

Sat. 


7 9 

7 S 
7 8 


4 51 
4 52 
4 52 


rises 

6 27 

7 22 


Union of Ireland with Great Britain, 1801. 
Gea. Wolf born, Westerham, Kent, 1727. 
Eliot Warburton, Hist. Novelist, died, 1852. 



1) Sunday after New Year. 



Matth. 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 46m. 



4 


8uii. 


7 8 


4 52 


8 18 


5 


Mon. 


7 7 


4 53 


9 10 


6 


Tues. 


7 7 


4 53 


10 6 


7 


Wed. 


7 7 


4 53 


11 4 


8 


Thurs. 


7 6 


4 54 


morn 


9 


Frid. 


7 6 


4 54 


12 40 


10 


Sat. 


7 6 


4 54 


12 4 



Introdu'n Silk manuf es into Europe, 1536. 

Vigil of Epiphany. 

Epiphany, or 12th day, old Christmas Day. 

Robert NicoJl, poet, born, 1814. 

Bat. N. 0., 1815 & Inaug. Gov. Nicholls, '77. 

Car. Lucr. Herschel, Astrono'r, died, 1848. 

1st Steamb't New Orleans fr. Pittsburg, '12. 



2) 1st Sunday after Epiphany. Luke 2. 



Day's length, 9h. 50m. 



11 


Sun. 


7 


5 


4 55 


1 38 


12 


Mon, 


7 


4 


4 56 


2 33 


13 


Tues. 


7 


3 


4 57 


3 30 


14 


Wed. 


7 


3 


4 57 


4 29 


15 


Thurs. 


7 


2 


4 58 


5 30 


16 


Frid. 


7 


1 


4 59 


sets 


17 


Sat. 


7 


1 


4 59 


6 10 



First Lottery drawn in England, 1569. 
St. Arcadius, Martyr. 

G. Fox, Founder Sect of Quakers, died, 1690. 
"Great Frost" in England, began 1205. 
Thomas Crofton Croker, born, 1798. 
Edmond Spencer, Poet, died, 1599. 
Mozart, Musician, born, 1756. 



3) 2d Sunday after Epiphany. John 2. Day's length, lOh. Om. | 



18 


Sun. 


19 


Mon. 


20 


Tues. 


21 


Wed. 


22 


Thurs. 


23 


Frid. 


24 


Sat. 



7 
7 
6 59 
6 58 
6 58 
6 57 
6 56 






7 19 





8 32 


1 


9 44 


2 


10 49 


2 


11 54 


3 


morn 


4 


12 48 



Festival of St. Peter's Chair at Rome. 
James Watt, born, 1736. 
Coldest day in the century, 1838. 
St. Agnes, Virgin Martyr,"^ 304. 
Francis Bacon, born 1561. 
Thanksgiving for victory of 8th, 1815. 
Frederick the Great, born, 1712. 



4) 3d Sunday after Epiphany. Matth. 8. Day's length, lOh. 10m. 

St. Paul's Day. 

Louisiana seceded, 1861. 

Admiral Lord Hood, died, 1816. 

Henry VIII, died, 1547. 

Emanuel de Swedenborg, born, 1688-89. 

King Charles I, beheaded, 1649. 

Ben. Johnston, born, 1574. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 17. Rosh Hodesh Shebat. 



25 


Swn. 


6 55 


5 5 


1 46 


26 


VI on. 


6 55 


5 5 


2 44 


27 


Tues. 


5 54 


5 6 


3 46 


28 


Wed. 


6 53 


5 7 


4 48 


29 


Thurs. 


6 52 


5 8 


5 46 


30 


Frid. 


6 51 


5 9 


rises 


31 


Sat. 


G 50 


5 10 


5 48 



Richard FrotscJier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



2il Month. 



FEBRUARY. 



:8 Davt 



* Calculated for tl\e Latitude of the Soutl\err\ States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter i3d. oh. 17m. Evening. 

New Moon 14d. 9h. Im. Evening. 

First Quarter 22d. oh. 11m. Morning. 

Full' Moon 28d. lOh. 40m. Evening. 



DAY 

OF 

?*r.)nth ^cWeek 



Sim 

rises. 



Sun 
sets 



Moon 
r. & s. 



CHROXOI*OGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



I 5) Septuagesima Sunday. Matth. 20. Day's length, lOh. 22m. 



1 


Sim. 


6 49 


•) 


Mon. 


6 49 


3 


Tues. 


B 48 


4 


Wed. 


6 47 


o 


Thurs. 


6 46 


6 


Frid. 


6 45 


7 


Sat. 


6 44 



11 


6 47 


11 


7 44 


12 


8 28 


13 


9 22 


14 


10 17 


15 


11 19 


16 


morn 



Washington elec. President. 1789. [mas Day 
Purification of the Blessed Virgin. [Candle- 
Henry Cromwell, born, 1627. 
Delegates from Confederate States meet at 
Ole Bull, born, 1810. [Montgomery. Ala., '61. 
Charles II, King of England, died" 1865. 
Charles Dickens, born, 1812. 



6) Sexagesima Sunday. 



Luke 8. 



Day's length, lOh. 34m. 



8 


SlIBl. 


6 43 


5 17 


12 12 


9 


Mon. 


6 42 


5 18 


1 18 


10 


Tues. 


6 41 


5 19 


2 25 


11 


Wed. 


6 40 


5 20 


3 33 


12 


Thurs. 


6 39 


5 21 


4 32 


13 


Frid. 


6 38 


5 22 


5 35 


14 


Sat. 


6 37 


5 23 


sets 



Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded. 1581 

David Kezzio. murdered, 1565-66. 

Kiot at Oxford. 1354. 

Mary, Queen of Eu-jlaud, born, 1516. 

Abraham Lincoln, born, 1809. 

St. (Gregory II, Pope, 631. 

St. Valentine's Da v. 



7 ) Quinqiiagesima Sunday. Luke 18 



Day's length. lOh. 48ni. 



15 


Sun. 


6 36 


5 24 


7 7 


16 


Mon. 


6 35 


5 25 


7 58 


17 


Tues. 


1 6 34 


5 26 


8 27 


18 


Wed. 


^ 6 33 


5 27 


9 15 


19 


Thurs. 


6 32 


5 28 


10 2 


20 


Frid. 


6 31 


5 29 


10 47 


21 


Sat. 


6 30 


5 30 


11 40 



Galilei Galileo, Astronomer, born. 1564. 

Dr. Kane, Am. Arctic Explorer, died. 1857. 

Mardi Gras in New Orleans. 

Pope Gregory V, died, 999. 

Eliz. Carter, classical scholar, died, 1806. 

U. Gaghau & T. Connor, felon poets, hanged 

Pierre du Bose, born, 1623. [1749. 



8) 1st Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 4. 



Day's length, llh. 2m, 



22 


Sun. 


6 29 


5 31 


moj-n 


23 


Mon. 


6 28 


5 32 


12 7 


24 


Tues. 


(■> 27 


5 33 


1 17 


25 


Wed. 


6 26 


5 34 


2 31 


26 


Thurs. 


6 25 


5 35 


3 43 


27 


Frid. 


6 24 


5 36 


5 5 


28 


Sat. 


6 23 


5 37 


rises 



George Washington, born, 1732. 
Battle of Buena Vista, 1847. 
St. ]\ratthias. .\postle. 
Dr. Bucan, born, 1729. 
Thomas Moore, poet, died. 1852. 
Longfellow, born, 1807. 



[1447. 



Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, murdered. 



Jewisli Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 14. Parshot Shekolim 
15. Rosh Hodesh Adar. 



For the Southern States. 



3cl Month. 



MARCH. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tt\e Soutlnerr\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 
Last Quarter 8d. h. 



New Moon 16d. 

First Quarter 23d, 

Full Moon , 30d. 



12h. 

5h. 

llh. 



34m. Forenoon. 

IGai. Afternoon. 

3m. Afternoon. 

20m. Forenoon. 



DAY 

OF 


Sun 
rises. 


Sun 

sets 


Moon 
r & s 


Mojith&Week 


h. m. 


h m. 


h m 



CHRONOL.OGY 

— OF— 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



9) 2d Sunday in Lent. 



Matth. 15. 



Day's length, llh. 16m, 



1 


Suit. 


6 22 


5 38 


6 4 


2 


Mon. 


6 21 


5 39 


7 13 


3 


Tues. 


6 19 


5 41 


8 18 


4 


Wed. 


6 18 


5 42 


9 18 


5 


Thurs. 


6 17 


5 43 


10 19 


6 


Frid. 


6 16 


5 44 


11 20 


7 


Sat. 


6 15 


5 45 


morn 



1st No. of the Spectator published, 1711. 
Territory of Dakota organized, 1861. 
Edmond Waller, Poet, burn, 1605. 
Abraham Lincoln inaugurated, 1861. 
1st Locomotive run through Brit, tube, 1830. 
Great financial excitement, 1863. 
Blanchard, Aeronaut, died, 1809. 



10) 3d Sunday in Lent. 



Luke 11. 



Day's length, llh.. 32m. 



8 


!§U1B. 


6 14 


5 46 


12 11 


King William III, of England, died, 1702. 


9 


Mon. 


6 13 


5 47 


1 2 


WilHam Cobbett, born. 1762. 


10 


Tues. 


6 11 


5 49 


1 57 


The Forty xMartyrs of St. Sebaste, 320. 


11 


Wed. 


6 10 


5 50 


2 49 


1st daily paper, " Daily Courant." Br., 1702 


12 


Thurs. 


6 9 


5 51 


3 39 


St. Gregory the Great, Pope, 604. 


13 


Frid. 


6 8 


5 52 


4 20 


Discovery of planet Uranus, by Herschel, 


14 


Sat. 


6 7 


5 53 


4 58 


Andrew Jackson, born, 1767. [1781. 



11) 4th Sunday in Lent. 



John 6. 



Day's length, llh. 48m. 



15 


8tm. 


6 6 


5 54 


5 35 


16 


Mon. 


6 5 


5 55 


sets. 


17 


Tues. 


6 3 


5 57 


7 9 


]8 


Wed. 


6 2 


5 68 


8 17 


19 


Thurs. 


6 1 


5 59 


8 23 


20 


Frid. 


6 


6 


10 35 


21 


Sat. 


5 59 


6 1 


11 37 



Julius CtTesar, assassinated, B. C, 44. 

Prince Hohenlohe's miraculous cures, 1823. 

St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland. 

Edward, King and Martyr, 978. 

St. Joseph's day. 

Vesta discovered, 1807. 

Louisiana ceded to France, 1800. 



12) 5th Sunday in Lent. 



John 8. 



Day's length, 12h. 4m. 



22 


8hii. 


5 58 


6 


2 


morn. 


23 


Mon. 


5 57 


6 


3 


12 39 


24 


Tues. 


5 56 


6 


A- 


1 32 


25 


Wed. 


5 54 


6 


6 


2 15 


26 


Thurs. 


5 53 


6 


7 


2 57 


27 


Frid. 


5 52 


6 


8 


3 32 


28 


Sat. 


5 51 


6 


9 


4 16 



J. W. von Goethe, Germ. Poet, died, 1832. 

Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, died, 1369- 

Mahomet, II, born, 1430. 

Annunciation of the blesse'd Virgin Mary. 

Gov. Winthrop, died, 1640. 

Vera Cruz captured, 1847. 

Planet Pallas, discovered, 1802. 



13) Palm Sunday 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 12h. 20m. 



29 
30 
31 



Sun. 

Mon. 
Tues. 



5 50 
5 49 
■5 48 



6 10 ! 4 53 



6 11 |] 



6 12 I ,6 57 



Mrs. Fitzherbert, died, 1837. 
Dr. William Hunter, died, 1782 
Beethoven, died, 1827. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 1. Parim.— 7. Parshot Poroh. 
17. Rosh Hodesh Nissan.— 31. First day Pessach. 
2 



10 



^Richard Frotscher's Alrnanao and Garden Manual 



4th Month. 



APRIL 



30 Davi 



Calculated for tl:\e Latitude of the Soutl:\errv States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 7d. 6h. 22m. Forenoon. 

New Moon 15d. 12h. 31m. Forenoon. 

First Quarter 22d. 6h. Om. Afternoon. 

Full Moon 29d. 12h. 54m. Forenoon. 



DAY 

OF 

Month &Week 



Sun 

rises . 



Sun 

sets. 



Moon 
r. & s. 



CHRONOIiOGY 

— OF — 

131 PORTA NT EVENTS. 



Wed. 


5 47 


6 13 


7 24 


Tburs. 


5 46 


6 14 


8 27 


Frid. 


5 45 


6 15 


9 24 


Sat. 


5 43 


6 17 


10 23 



Earthquake at Melbourne, 1871. 

Jefferson, born, 1743. 

Good Friday. 

Oliver Goldsmith, died, 1774. 



14) Easter Sunday. 



Mark 16. 



Day's length, 12h. 36m. 



5 


Sun. 


5 42 


6 18 


11 21 


6 


Mon. 


5 41 


6 19 


morn 


7 


Tues. 


5 40 


6 20 


12 12 


8 


Wed. 


5 39 


6 21 


1 2 


9 


Thurs. 


5 38 


6 22 


1 45 


10 


Frid. 


5 37 


6 23 


2 28 


11 


Sat. 


5 36 


6 24 


2 56 



Easter Sunday. 

Battle of Shiloh, 1862. 

St. Francis Xavier, Missionary, born, 1506. 

Louisiana admitted to the Union, 1812. 

Gen. K. E. Lee, surrendered, 1865. 

St. Bademus, Abbot, Martyr, 376. 

Geo. Canning, born, 1770. 



15) 1st Sunday after Easter. John 20. 



Day's length, 12h. 50m. 



12 


Sun. 


5 35 


6 25 


3 49 


13 


Mon. 


5 34 


6 26 


4 23 


14 


Tues. 


5 33 


6 27 


5 4 


15 


Wed. 


5 32 


6 28 


sets 


16 


Thurs. 


5 31 


6 29 


8 28 


17 


Frid. 


5 30 


6 30 


9 25 


18 


Sat. 


5 29 


6 31 


10 28 



First gun of Civil War fired, 1861, at Fort 

Sydney Lady Morgan, died, 1859. [Sumter. 

Lincoln assassinated, 1865. 

Geo. Calvert, Lord Baltimore, died, 1632. 

Battle of Cullodeu. 1746. 

Dr. Benjamin Franklin, died, 1790. 

Shakespeare, born, 1564. 



16) 2d Sunday after Easter. 



19 


Sun. 


5 28 


6 32 


11 26 


20 


Mon. 


5 27 


6 33 


morn 


21 


Tues. 


5 26 


6 34 


12 17 


22 


Wed. 


5 25 


6 35 


12 58 


23 


Thurs. 


5 24- 


6 36 


1 39 


24 


Frid. 


5 23 


6 37 


2 12 


25 


Sat. 


5 22 


6 38 


2 51 



John 20. 



Day's length, 13h. 4m. 



Battle of Lexington, 1775. 

E. Barton, "Maid of Kent," executed, 1534. 

Confed. victory at Plymouth, N. C. 1863. 

Madam De Stael, born 1766. 

Shakespeare, died, 1616. 

Oliver Cromwell, born, 1599. 

St. Mark's Dav. 



17) 3d Sunday after Easter. John 16. Day's length, 13h. 18ni. 



26 


Sun. 


5 21 


6 39 


3 41 


27 


Mon. 


5 20 


6 40 


4 17 


28 


Tues. 


5 19 


6 41 


4 53 


29 


Wed. 


5 18 


6 42 


rises 


30 


Thurs. 


5 17 


6 43 


7 35 



David Hume, born, 1711. 
Sir Wm. Jones, Poet and Scholar, died, 
Monroe, born, 1758. [1794. 

King Edward IV, of England, born, 1441. 
Louisiana purchased from France by IT. S. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 6. and 7. Last days Pessach. 
15. Rosh Hodesh lyar. 



For the Southern States. 



11 



5th Month. 



MAY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southerr\ States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter, 7d. 3h. 23m. Forenoon. 

New Moon 14d. 9h. 57m. Forenoon. 

First Quarter 21d. lOh. 25m. Forenoon. 

Full Moon 28d. 3h. 10m. Afternoon. 



OF 

Month &Week 


Sun 
rises. 

h. m 


Sun 

sets. 

h. m. 


Moon 

r. & s. 

h. m. 


CHRONOLOGY 

— OF— 

IMP OR TA NT EVEN TS. 


1 
2 


Frid. 

Sat. 


5 16 
5 15 


6 44 
6 45 


8 20 

9 10 


St. Philip and St. James, Apostles. 
William Camden, born, 1551. 



18) 4th Sunday after Easter. John. 16. Day's length, 13fi. 32m. 

Discovery of the Holy Cross, by St. Helena. 

Dr. Isaac Barrow, Eng. divine, died, 1677. 

Emperor Justinian, born, 482. 

Humboldt, died, 1859. 

St. Benedict II, Pope, Confessor, 686. 

Stonewall Jackson, died, 1863. 

Battle of Spottsylvania, 1864. 



3 


Sun. 


5 14 


6 46 


10 6 


4 


Mon, 


5 14 


6 46 


11 


5 


Tues. 


5 13 


6 47 


11 45 


6 


Wed. 


5 12 


6 48 


morn 


7 


Thurs. 


5 11 


6 49 


12 34 


8 


Frid. 


5 10 


6 50 


1 13 


9 


Sat. 


5 10 


6 50 


1 49 



19) 5th Sunday after Easter. 



John 16. 



Day's length, 13h. 42m. 



10 


Sun. 


5 9 


6 51 


2 29 


11 


Mon. 


5 8 


6 52 


3 2 


12 


Tues. 


5 7 


6 53 


3 39 


13 


Wed. 


5 6 


6 54 


4 22 


14 


Thurs. 


5 5 


6 55 


sets. 


15 


Frid. 


5 4 


6 56 


8 13 


16 


Sat. 


5 3 


6 57 


9 12 



Pacific Eailroad finished, 1869. 

Madame Kicamire, died, 1849. 

St. Pancras, Martyr, 304. 

Jamestown, Va., settled, 1607. 

Ascension Day. 

St. Isidore, died, 1170. 

Sir William Petty, born, 1623. 



20) 6th Sunday after Easter. 



John 15. 



Day's length, 13h. 54m. 



17 


Sun. 


5 3 


6 57 


10 4 


18 


Mon. 


5 2 


6 58 


10 50 


19 


Tues. 


5 2 


6 58 


11 32 


20 


Wed. 


5 1 


6 59 


morn 


21 


Thurs. 


5 1 


6 59 


12 19 


22 


Frid. 


5 


7 


12 54 


23 


Sat. 


4 59 


7 1 


1 22 



J. Jay, died, 1829. 

Napoleon I, elected Emperor, 1804. 

St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, 988. 

Hawthorn, died, 1864. 

Columbus, died, 1506. 

Title of Baronet first conferred, 1611. 

Napoleon I, crowned King of Italy, 1805. 



21) Whit Sunday. 



John 14. 



Day's length, 14h. 4m. 



24 


Sun. 


25 


Mon. 


26 


Tues. 


27 


Wed. 


28 


Thurs. 


29 


Frid. 


30 


Sat. 




Bishop Jewell, born, 1522. 

Battle of Winchester, 1864. 

Fort Erie captured, 1813. 

Dante, poet, born, 1265. 

Noah Webster, died, 1843. 

Paris burned, 1871. 

Peter the Great of Russia, born, 1672. 



22) Trinity Sunday. 



John 3. 



Day's length, 14h. 10m. 



31 I Sun. I 4 55 I 7 5 1 9 42 I Joan of Arc, burned, 1431. 

Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 3. Lag Beomer.— 15. Kosh Hodesh 
Siwan.— 20. and 21. Shebuoth. 



12 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



6th Monti] 



JUNE. 



30 Da vs. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Soutl:\ern States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 5d. 6h. 44m. Evening. 

^ftw iloon . . 12Li. oh. 22m. Evening. 

•First Quarter 19d. . 8h. 2Sm. Morning. 

Full Moon ... 27d. 5h. o7m. Morning. 



DAY 

OF 

:\rr'iith &Week 



Sun 
rises. 



Sun. 



Moon 
r. & S. 



CHKOXOIiOGY 

— OF — 

IMI' O R TA XT E VEXTS. 



1 


Mon. 


4 54 


7 6 


10 14 


2 


Tues. 


4 54 


7 6 


10 56 


3 


Wed. 


4 53 


7 7 


11 36 


4 


Thurs. 


4 53 


7 7 


morn 


5 


Frid. 


4 52 


7 8 


12 33 


6 


Sat. 


4 52 


7 8 


1 12 



Battle of Seven Pines. 1862. 

Battle of Cold Harbor, 1864. 

S. A. Douglas, died, 1861. 

Corpus Christi. 

J. Pradier, Sculptor, died. 1852. 

Surrender of Memphis, Tenn., 1862. 



23i l3t Simdav after Trinitv 



Luke 16. 



Day's length, 14h. 18m. 



1 


Snu. 


4 51 


7 9 


150 


8 


Mon. 


4 51 


7 9 


2 26 


9 


Tues. 


4 51 


7 9 


2 58 


10 


Wed. 


4 51 


7 9 


3 31 


11 


Thurs. 


4 50 j 


7 10 


3 59 


12 


Frid. 


4 50 


7 10 


sets 


13 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


8 



24 > 2d Simdav after Trinitr 



First American Congress at Xew York, 1765. 

Emperor Nero, died. 6S. Fiome. 

Charles Dickens, died. 1870. 

Rattle of Big Bethel. 1861. 

Sir John Franklin, died, 1847. 

Harriet Martineau.- Novelist, born. 1802. 

General Scott, born. 1786. 



Liikf 



Dav"s lenath. 14h. 20; 



14 


Snn. 


4 50 


7 10 


■9 2! 


15 


Mon. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 30 


16 


Tues. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 2 


17 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


10 39 


18 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


11 36 


19 


Frid. 


4 49 


7 11 


morn 


20 


Sat. 


4 49 


7 11 


12 11 i 



St. Basil the Great. 379. 

Magna Charter, 1215. 

Edward I. ofEnshnd. born. 1239. 

Battle of Bunker Hill. 1775. 

War declared against Great Britain, 1812. 

Kearsage sunk the Alabama. 1864. 

St. Silverius, Pope and Martyr, 538. 



"25 3d Sundav after Trinitv. 



Lnke 15. 



Day's length. 14h. 22m. 



21 


Snn. 


4 ^9 


7 11 


12 40 


22 


Mon. 


4 48 


7 12 


1 11 


23 


Tues. 


4 49 


7 11 


1 i7 ; 


24 


Wed. 


4 49 


7 11 


2 25 i 


25 


Thurs. 


4 49 


7 11 


3 11 


26 


Frid. 


4 49 


7 11 


3 57 


27 


Sat. 


4 50 


7 10 


rises 



Anthony Collins, born. 1676. 

Napoleon L abdicated. 1815. 

Battle of Solferino, 1859. 

Nativity of St. John the Baptist. 

Baltle of Bannochburn. 

Dr. Philip Doddrige, born. 1702. 

John Murrav. Publisher, died, 1843. 



26) 4th Sunday after Trinity 



l^uke G. 



Dav"s lenutli. 14h. 2001. 



28_,SuiL. 4 50 ! 7 10 7 59 ! Queen Victoria, crowned. 1838. 

29 jMon. 4 50 7 10 8 40 I St. Peter the Apostle. GS. 

30 Tues. 4 50 I 7 10 I 9 21 Bishop Gavin Dunbar, died. 154" 



Jewish Festival? and Fasts.— 5G45.— 13. Eosh Hodesh Tamuz. 



For the Southern States. 



13 



th Month. 



JULY. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southerr\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter 5d. 12h. 

New Moon 12d. 12h. 

Fh-st Quarter . 18d. 6h. 

Full Moou 26d. 9h. 



5m. Afternoon. 

Oni. Morning. 

59 m. Evening. 

2m. Evening. 



Day 

OF 

Month & Week 



Sun 


• Klin 


Moon 


rises. 


sets. 


r. it s. 


h. m 


h. m. 


h. m. 



CIIRONOI^OGY. 

— OF — 

I5IPORT.INT EVENTS, 



1 


Wed. 


4 50 


7 10 


9 52 


2 


Thurs. 


4 51 


7 9 


10 31 


3 


Frid. 


4 51 


7 9 


11 11 


4 


Sat. 


4 51 


7 9 


11 47 



Battle of Malvern Hill, 1862. 
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 
Quebec founded, 1608. 
Independence of the United States, 1776. 



27) 5th Sunday after Trinity. 



Luke 5. 



Day's lenp>th, 14h. 18m. 



5 


Suii. 


4 51 


7 


9 


morn 


6 


Mon. 


4 52 


7 


8 


12 52 


7 


Tues. 


4 52 


7 


8 


1 34 


8 


Wed. 


4 52 


7 


8 


2 11 


9 


Thurs. 


1 53 


7 


7 


2 52 


10 


Frid. 


4 53 


7 


7 


3 31 


11 


Sat. 


4 54 


7 


6 


4 3 



Queen Magdalen of Scotland, died, 1537. 

Th. More, Chancel, of Eng. beheaded, 1535. 

Br. Th. Blacklock, "the blind poet," died, 

John de la Fontaine, born, 1621. [1791. 

Zachary Taylor, died , 1850. 

John CalviUj theologian, born, 1509. 

J. Q. Adams, born, 1767. 



S§) 6th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 5. Day's length, 14h. 12m. 



12 


Sum. 


4 54 


7 6 


sets 


13 


Mon. 


4 55 


7 5 


8 12 


14 


Tue.s. 


4 5(3 


7 4 


9 3 


15 


Wed. 


4 56 


7 4 


9 37 


16 


Thurs. 


4 57 


7 3 


10 2.) 


17 


Frid. 


4 57 


7 3 


11 8 


18 


Sat. 


4 53 


7 2 


11 4S 



Robt. Stevenson, engineer, etc., died, 1850. 

Dog days begirj. 

John Hunter, eminent surgeon, born, 1728 . 

St. Swithiu's day. 

Great riot in New York city, 1863. 

Dr. Isaac Watts, born, 1647. 

St. S.vmphorosia and 7 sons, Martyrs, 120. 



29) 7th Sunday after Trinity 



Mark 8. 



Day's length, 14h. 2m. 



19 


§UI1. 


4 59 


7 1 


moni 


St. Vincent de Paul, confessor, 1660. 


20 


Mon. 


4 59 


7 1 


12 45 


Confed. Congress at Eichmond, 1861. 


21 


Tues. 


5 


7 


1 31 


Battle of Bull Run, 1861. 


22 


Wed. 


5 1 


6 59 


2 15 


Urania discovered. 1824. 


23 


Thurs. 


5 1 


6 59 


2 47 


First Olympiad. 776, B. C. 


24 


Frid. 


5 2 


6 58 


3 23 


('Airran, born, 1750. 


25 


Sat. 


5 2 


6 58 


3 49 


St. James the Great. 



SO) 8th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 7. 



Day's length, 13h. 54ni. j 



26 


Sun. 


5 3 


6 57 


rises 


27 


Mon. 


5 4 


6 56 


7 34 


28 


Tues. 


5, 4 


6 56 


8 13 


29 Wed. 


5 5 


6 55 


9 6 


30 Thurs. 


5 6 


6 54 


9 46 


31 


Frid. 


5 7 


6 53 


10 15 



Flood at Pittsburg, 1874. 
Atlantic cable, laid, 1866. 
Battle betore Atlanta, Ga., 1864. 
Albert I, Emp. of Germany, born, 1289. 
Westneld Explosion, N. Y'. Harbor, 1871. 
St. Ignatius Loyola, died, 1556. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. — 5615.-13. Rosh Hodesh Ab. 



u 



RicJiard Frotschers Almanac and Garden J[Taniial 



8th Month. 



AUGUST. 



31 Days. 



Calculated for the Latitude of tl:\e Soutt>err\ States. 

MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter , 3d. 4h. ^ym. Afternoon. 

New Moon , .lOd. Qi. 54m. Morning. 

First Quarter 17d. - 8h . 26m. Morning. 

Full Moon 25d. 12:h. 5m, AftevrKXHi. 



DAY 

OF 


Sim 

rises. 


Sun 

sets 


Moon 
r. 15 s. 


MoEth&Week 


h. m 


h m. 


h. m. 

1 



CHRONOI^GY 

— OF— 

JJIPORTAXT EJECTS. 



1 I Sat. 



6 53 i 10 43 I Harriet Lee, Novelist, died, 1851. 



31) 9th Sunday after Trinity. Luke IS, Day's len^h, 13h. 18m. 



Sun. 


5 8 


6 52 


11 16 


Mon. 


5 9 


6 51 


11 44 


Tues. 


5 10 


6 50 


morn 


Wed. 


5 11 


6 49 


12 28 


Tbui-s. 


5 12 


6 48 


1 11 


Frid. 


5 13 


6 47 


1 59 


Sat. 


5 14 


6 46 


2 50 



Mehemed Ali. Pasha of Egypt, died, 1849. 

Crown Point taken, 1759. 

John Banim, Irish Novelist, died^ 1842, 

First Atlantic Cable lauded, l'S5^. 

Transtigur;.ticn of ciw Lord. 

Leouidas, Spartan Hero, slain. 480, B. C. 

Fr. Hatcheson. Moral Phil., born, 1694. 



32) 10th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 19. Day's length, 13h. 30m. 

Isaac Walton, born, 1593. 

Battle of Weisenbnrg, 1870= 

Viscoiiut Eowland Hill, born, 1772. 

Pope Gregory IX. died. 1241. 

Earthquake in Scotland. 1816. 

G. Coleman, the elder, Dramatist, died, 1794 

Ascension of the Blessed Virgin Mary. 



9 


Sun. 


5 15 


6 45 


3 46 


10 


Mon. 


5 16 


6 44 


sets. 


11 


rnes. 


5 17 


6 43 


7 23 


12 


Wed. 


5 18 


6 42 


7 56 


13 


Thurs. 


5 19 


6 41 


8 24 


14 


Frid. 


5 20 


6 40 


9 7 


15 


Sat. 


5 21 


6 39 


9 35 



33i 11th Sunday after Trinity 



Luke 18. Day's lensth. 13h. 16m. 



16 


Sun. 


o2-2 


6 38 


10 14 


17 


Mon. 


5 23 


6 37 


11 10 1 


1^ 


Tues. 


5 24 


6 36 


morn 


19 


Wed. 


5 25 


6 35 


12 14 i 


20 


Thnrs. 


5 26 


6 34 


12 55 ; 


21 


Frid. 


5 27 


6 33 


1 45 


22 


Sat. 


5 28 


6 32 


2 40 



Battle of Bennington. 1777. 

Frederick the Great, died. 1786. 

John, Earl Russell, born, 1792. 

B-attle of Gravelotte, 1870. 

Kobert Herrick. English Poet, born, 1591. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montague, died, 1762. 

Dr. F. J. Gall, founder of phrenology, died. 



34) 


12th Sunday 


after Trinity. Mark 7. Day's length, 13h. 2m. 


23 


Sun. 


5 29 


6 31 


3 28 


Wallace, beheaded. 1305. [1828. 


24 


Men. 


5 30 


6 30 


4 27 


St. Bartholomew. Apostle. 


25 


Tues. 


5 31 


6 29 


rises. 


25th or 27th. Landing of Caisar in England. 


26 


Wed. 


5 32 


6 28 


7 8 


Sir Bob. Walpole. born. icT'i. [55 B. C. 


27 


Thurs. 


5 33 


6 27 


7 56 


Dog days end. 


28 


Frid. 


5 33 


6 27 


8 36 


Leigh Hunt, died, 1859. 


29 


Sat. 


5 34 


6 26 


9 19 


John Locke, Philosopher, born, 1632. 



35) 


13th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 10. Day's length, 12h. 50m. 


30 
31 


Sun. 

IMon. 


! 

5 35 6 25 10 1 Union defeat at Richmond, Ky. 
5 36 1 6 24 10 43 John Banyan, died, 1683. 


Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5645.— 11. Eosh Hodesh ElaL 



For the Southern States. 



15 



9 til Month, 



SEPTEMBER. 



30 Buys. 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Southeri\ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

L«st Quarter _, ,. 2d. 121i. Orn. Morning. 

New Moon . . 8d. 3h. 23m. Afternoon. 

First Quarter . , ^ I'Gd. 12h. 54ai. Morninpf. 

Full Moon 24d. 2h. 34m. Morning. 



OF 

Month & 



Sun 
rises. 



m 



sets, 
h. m 



Moon 
r. & s. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT EVENTS. 



1 


Tues. 


2 


Wed, 


3 


Thurs. 


4 


Frld. 


5 


Sat. ] 



5 37 
5 38 
5 39 
5 40 
5 42 



23 


11 42 


6 22 


morn. 


6 21 


12 44 


6 20 


1 18 


6 18* 


1 48 



1870. 



Napoleon III. captured at Sedan 
Great tire in London, 1666. 
Cromwell died, 1658. 
Pindar, Lyric poet, 518, B. C. 
Confederates entered Maryland, 1862 



36) 14th Sunday after Triaity. Luke 17. Day's length, 12h. 34m. 

Geo. Alex. Stevens, writer, died, 1784. 
Independence of Brazil, 1822. 
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin. 
James IV, of Scotland, killed, 1513. 
Mungo Park, African Traveler, born, 1771. 
James Thomson, poet, l>oru, 1700. 
St. Guy, Confessor, 11th century. 

37) 15th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 6. Day's length, 12h. 18m. 



6 


Sun. 


5 43 


6 17 


3 1 


7 


Mon. 


5 44 


6 16 


4 16 


8 


Tues. 


5 45 


6 15 


fiets. 


9 


Wed. 


5 46 


6 14 


6 35 


10 


Thurs. 


5 47 


6 13 


7 4 


11 


Frid. 


5 48 


6 12 


7 39 


12 


Sat 


5 50 


6 10 


8 9 



13 


Sun. 


*5 51 


6 9 


8 40 


14 


Mon. 


5 52 


6 8 


9 24 


15 


Tues. 


5 53 


6 7 


10 13 


16 


Wed. 


5 54 


6 6 


10 46 


17 


Thurs. 


5 55 


6 5 


11 33 


18 


Frid. 


5 56 


6 4 


morn. 


19 


Sat. 


5 57 


6 3 


12 17 



Sir Wm. Cecil, Lord Burleigh, born, 1520. 
Uprising of the Pe«ple of Jfeiv Orleans against the usnrpiug- g-ov'l 
Capture Harper's Ferry by S'ewall Jackscm 
Gabriel Dan'l Fahrenheit, died, 1736 [1862. 
Battle of Antietam, 1862. 
Gilbert Bishop Burnet, hist'au, born, 1643. 
First battle of Paris, 1870. 



38) 16th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 7. Day's length, 12h. 4m. 



Alexander the Great, born, 356, B. C. 

St. Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist. 

Beginning of Autumn. 

Wm. Upcott, Manusc. Collec, died, 1845. 

Pepin, King of France, 768. 

Pacific Ocean discovered. 1513. 

Saints Cyprian and Justiua, Martyrs, 304. 



20 


Siin. 


5 58 


6 % 


1 17 


21 


Mon. 


5 59 


6 1 


2 13 


22 


Tues. 


6 


6 


3 25 


23 


Wed. 


6 1 


5 59 


4 35 


24 


Thurs. 


6 2 


5 58 


rises 


25 


Frid. 


6 3 


5 57 


6 51 


26 


Sat. 


6 4 


5 56 


7 36 1 



39) 17th Sunday after Trinity. Luke 18. Day's length, llh. 50m. 



Sun. 


6 5 


5 55 


8 22 


Mon. 


6 6 


5 54 


9 8 


Tues. 


6 7 


5 53 


10 


Wed- 


r> 8 


5 52 


10 52 



Strassburg fell, 1870. 

Sir Wm. Jones, Oriental Scholar, born, 1746. 

Michaelmas Day. 

Yorktown invested, 1781, 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646.— 10. Rosh Hashonoh. 13. Zom 
Gedaljah. 19. Yom Kipinir. 24. and 25. First days Succoth. 



A 



16 



EicJiard Frotacher's Almanac and Gardeji Manual 



10th Month. 



OCTOBER. 



a I, Pays 



Calculated for the Latitude of the SoutHerr^ States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

Last Quarter. Id. 6h. ^m. Morning. 

Nev/ Moon . 8d. 2h. 11m. Morning. 

First Quarter 15d. 8h. Om. Al'teruoon. 

Full Moon 23d. 4h. 2m. Afternoon. 

Last Quarter 30d. 12k 37m. Afternoon. 



DAY 

OF 

Mon til & Week 


Sun 
rises. 

h, m 


Sun 

sets. 

h. rn 


Moou 
r. & s. 

li, m. 


1 
2 
3 


Tburs, 

Frid. 

Sat. 


6 9 
G 10 
6 11 


5 51 
5 50 
5 49 


11 56 \ 
01 or a. \ 

12 42 1 



CHROWOL.OGY 

— OF — 

IMPORTANT E TENTS. 



Fulton's first Steamboat trip, 1807. 
Andre' executed as a spj', 1780. 
Black Hawk, died, 1838. 



4®) 18th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Day's length, llh. 36m. 



4 


Sun. 


6 12 


5 48 


1 46 


Battle of Germantown, 1777. 


5 


Mon. 


6 14 


5 46 


2 51 


Horace Walpole, born, 1717. 


6 


Tues. 


6 15 


5 45 


3 55 


Jenny Line], born, 1820. 


7 


Wed. 


6 16 


5 44 


5 2, 


Margaret, Maid of Norway, died, 1290. 


8 


Thurs. 


6 17 


5 43 


sets. 


Battle of Perry viile, Ky., 1862. 


9 


Frid. 


6 18 


, 5 42 


6 29 


Great fire in Chicago, 1871. 


10 


Sat. 


6 19 


5 41 


7 9 


Benjamin West, Fainter, born, 1738. 



41) 19th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, llh. 20m. 



11 


§Mn. 


6 20 


5 40 


7 35 


America discovered, 1492, 




12 


Mon. 


6 21 


5 39 


8 35 


St. Wilfrid, Bishop of York, 709. 




13 


Tues. 


6 23 


5 37 


9 25 


Battle of Queenstown, 1812. 




14 


Wed. 


6 24 


5 36 


10 2 


Battle of Jena, 1806. 




15 


Thurs. 


6 25 


5 35 


10 44 


Virgil, Latin Poet, born, 70 B. C. 




16 


Frid. 


6 26 


5 34 


11 48 


Marie Antoinette, beheaded, 1793. 




17 


Sat. 


6 26 


5 34 


morn. 


Burgoyue, surrendered, 1777. 





42) 20th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 18. Day's length, llh. 6m. 

Last State Lottery drawn in Engl, 1826. 

Cornwallis surrendered, 1781. 

M. Dahl. Swed. Portrait Painter, died, 1743. 

Battle of Trafalgar, 1805. 

Charles Marte), died, 741. 

Dr. John Jortin, Critic, born, 1698. 

Daniel Webster, died, 1852. 



18 


S«m. 


6 27 


5 33 


12 40 


19 


Mon. 


6 28 


5 32 


1 28 


20 


Tues. 


6 29 


5 31 


2 18 


21 


Wed. 


6 30 


5 30 


3 27 


22 


Thurs. 


6 32 


5 28 


4 42 


23 


Frid. 


6 33 


5 27 


rises 


24 


Sat. 


6 34 


5 26 


6 14 



43) 21st Sunday after Trinity 



John 4, Day's length, lOh.. ,50m. 



25 


SUVB. 


6 35 


5 25 


7 2 


26 


Mon. 


6 36 


5 24 


7 51 


27 


Tues. 


6 37 


5 23 


8 49 


28 


Wed. 


6 38 


5 22 


9 47 


29 


Thurs. 


6 39 


5 21 


10 45 


30 


Frid. 


6 40 


5 20 


11 43 


31 


Sat. 


6 41 


5 19 


morn 



Dr. James Beattie, Poet, born, 1735. 

Hogarth, died, 1765. 

Cuba discovered, 1492. 

Battle at White Plains. 1776. 

Surrender of Metz, 1870. 

Solomon's Temole dedicated, 1004 B. C. 

All Hallow Eve.' 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646. —1. Shemini Azereth.--2. Simchas 
Torah.— 9. Rosh Hodesh Cliesvan. 



.. 


For the Southern States. 




17 


nth Month. 


NOVEMBER. 


3*0 


Days. 


Calculated 


for the Latitude of tYye Sout]rieri\ States. 





MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon 6cl. 3h. 

First Quarter l4d. . 41i . 

Full Moon 22d. ih. 

Last Quarter. .28d. 8h. 



42m. Afternoon. 

39m. Afternoon. 

19m. Morning. 

37m. Afternoon. 



DAY 
OF 

Month & Week 



Snn 
rises. 



8uu 

sets 



Moou 

r. & s. 



CHRONOLOGY 
— OF— 

IMPORTANT EV^^TS. 



44) '22d Sunday after Trinity. Matth. IS. Bay's length, lOh. 36m. 



1 


Smm. 


6 42 


5 18 


12 31 


All Saints Day. 


2 


Men. 


6 43 


5 17 


1 32 


All Souls Day. 


3 


Tues. 


6 44 


5 16 


2 36 


Malaehv, Archbishop of Armagh, 114S. 


i 


Wed. 


6 45 


5 15 


3 55 


George Peabody, died, 1869. 





Thurs. 


6 45 


5 15 


5 11 


The American 74 launched, 1782. 


6 


Frid. 


6 46 


5 14 


sets. 


Battle of Port Eoyal, 1861. 


7 


Sat. 


6 47 


5 13 


5 54 


John Kyrle, "The man of Ross," died, 1724. 



-45) 23d Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 22. Bay's length, lOh. 24m 



8 


SttK. 


6 48 


5 12 


6 35 


9 


Mon. 


6 49 


5 11 


7 20 


10 


Tues, 


6 50 


5 10 


8 16 


11 


Wed. 


6 51 


5 9 


9 24 


12 


Thurs. 


6 52 


5 8 


10 18 


13 


Frid. 


6 53 


5 7 


11 15 


14 


Sat. 


G 54 


5 6 


morn. 



Cortez entered Mexico, 1519. 

Great fire in Boston, 1872. 

Mahomet, Arabian Prophet, born, 570. 

Martinmas, 

Sherman left Atlanta, 1864. 

French entered Vienna, 1805. 

Sir Chas, Lyell, Geologist, born, 1797. 



15 


Swn, 


6 54 


5 6 


12 


16 


Alon. 


6 55 


5 5 


12 45 


17 


Tues. 


6 56 


5 4 


1 46 


18 


Wed. 


6 57 


5 3 


2 48 


19 


Thurs. 


6 57 


5 3 


3 47 


20 


Frid. 


6 58 


5 2 


4 47 


21 


Sat. 


6 59 


5 1 


5 48 



46) 24th Sunday after Trinity. Matth. 9. Day's length, lOh. 12m. 

John Keppler, great Astronomer, died, 1630. 

Tiberius, Roman Emperor, born, 42 B. C 

Suez Canal opeued 1869. 

Fort Lee taken bv the British, 1776. 

St. Elizabeth of Hungary, Widow, 1231. 

Thomas Chatcertou, Poet, born, 1752. 

Presentation of the Blessed Virgin. 

4^) 25th Sunday after Trinity. Matth.- 24. Day's length, lOh. 2m. 

Professor Dugald Steward, born, 1753. 

Th. Henderson, Prof, of Astron., died, 1844. 

Battle of Lookout Mountain. 1863. 

Evacuation of New York, 1783. 

John Elwe.s, noted Miser, died, 1789. 

Steam Printing, 1814. 

Washington Irving, died, 1859. 



22 


Sun. 


6 59 


5 1 


rises. 


23 


Mon. 


7 


5 


6 34 


24 


Tues. 


7 1 


4 59 


7 44 


25 


Wed. 


7 1 


4 59 


8 64 


26 


Thurs. 


7 2 


4 58 


10 3 


27 


Frid. 


7 2 


4 58 


11 12 


28 


Sat. 


7 3 


4 57 


11 58 



48) 1st Sunday in Advent. 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 9h.50m. 



29 
30 



Sun. 

Mon. 



4 57 
4 56 



morn. 
12 40 



Sir Philip Sidney, Poet, born, 1554. 

U. S. took posse.ssiou of Louisiana, 1803. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts. 
3 



-5646.— 8. Rosh Hodesh Kislev. 



Richard Frot^.cJier's Almanac and Gardeji Manual 



12th Month 



DECEMBER 



31 Days, 



Calculated for the Latitude of the Soutl^erix States. 



MOON'S PHASES. 

New Moon ; 6d. 7ii. 

First Quarter .14d lii. 

Fu'li Moon .., ... 21d. 21i. 

Last Quarter 28d. Tli. 



56m. Mornin;^. 

im. Afternoon. 

38m. Afternoon. 

Im. Morning. 



OF 

Mouth &VV. 



Sim 


Hun 


rises. 


. setlo. 


h m 


h. m 



Moon 
r. & s. 



CHRONOLOGY 

— or -- 

IMPOii TANT E VENTS. 



T'lex 


7 5 


4 55 


1 32 


Wed/,.. 


„I_..J„H 


^4._51_ 


_2.34.., 


Diurt^ 


ri 6^ 


4 54 


3 36 1 


FlKl. 


7 7 


4 53 


4 43 


Sut. 


7 7 


4 53 


5 44 



Princes.^ x\. Conmena, Historian, born, 1083. 
Jlernau Govtez, died 1547. __ 
Robert "Biooin deld, Foetr'bornri77'6r''" '"' 
Pope John XXil. died, 1334. 
Carlyie, ixuii, 1795. 



4!l) 2d Sunday ia Advent. 



Matth. 21. 



Day's length, 9h. 46m. 



r, 


Srio, 


7 7 


4 53 


1 


- •7- 


Mtn^l. 


7 - 8- 


•■.-4-52- 


■6-- 4- 


S 


Tnes. 


7 .8 


4 52 


6 54 


9 


Wed.. 


7 8 


4. 62- 


-7-53..^ 


10 


riiiirs. 


7 9 


4 51 


8 55 


11 


Frid. 


7 9- 


4 51 


9 59 


12 


Sat. ., 


7 9 


4 51 


10 69 



St. Nicholas, Archbishop of j\Iyra, 342. 
-Gi-c-6ro,--B^:r>an. orator, assaftfiinatedr-43 B. C. 

Immaculaie Conception of Blessed Virgin. 
-Milton, Jooru,.. 1608:... .. .,.. 

Louis Napoleon, elected President, 1848. 

Louis, Prince of Conde, died, 1686. 

St. Coiumba, Abbot in Irelimd, 584, 



50) 3d Sunday in Advent. Matth. 11. 



Day's length, 9h. 42m, 



13 


§81IS. 


7 9 


4 51 


11 59 


P4- 


•Mon; ■ 


•Vio- 


4 50- 


nji-ovnr^ 


15 


.Tues. 


7.10 


4 50 


12 30 1 


in 


We.1.- 


■ 7 10 


.4.-50-- 


■-l- -go ' 


17 


rhurs. 


7 10 


4 50 


2 18 


18 


Frid. 


7 11 


4 49 


3 2i 


19 


Sat. 


7 11 


4 49 


4 30 



Battle of Fredericksburg, 1862. 
Washington, -died,- 1799. 
David Don, Botanist, died, 1841. 
■-f^.'e-?rfc-Fire-in New-Y-ork, 1835. ■ 

Ludw. Beethoven, emin. comp., born, 1770. 
St. Winebald, Abbot and Confessor, 760. 
Capt. W, Ed. Parry, Arct. Nav., born, 1790. 



51) 4th Sunday in Advent. 



John 1. 



Day's length, 9h. 38m 



20 


§8BM. 


7 11 


4 49 


5 28 


21 


AIou. 


7 12- 


4 48 


rises 


22 


Tubs. 


7 11 


4 49 


6 6 1 


23 


W^vl 


7 11 


4 49 


7 5 


24 


T!ii-ir^i 


7 11 


4 49 


8 5 


25 


Frid. 


7 10 


4 5) 


9 4 


26 


Sat, 


7 10 


4 50 


10 1 



Secession ord, passed in S. Carolina, 1860. 

St- Thomas, Apostle. 

Eu)p, Vit''dlius, beheaded at Rome,- 69 A. D 

Nev/fcdn,'boru, 1642. 

Treaty of Ghent, 1814. 

Nativity of our Lord. Christmas Day. 

Battle of Trenton, 1776. 



5*.;l) Sunday after Christmas. 



Luke 2. Day's length, 9h. 10m. 



27 


Scisa. 


7 10 


4 50 


10 49 


28 


Mou. 


7 10 


4 50 


11 52 


29 


Tues. 


7 9 


4 51 


morn. 


30 


Vv'ed. 


7 9 


4 51 


12 30 


31 


Tiiars, 


7 9 


4 51 


1 26 



8t. John, Apo.sile and Evangelist. 
Macauley, di<.d, 1359. 

Union repulsed at VJcksbur!.,^ Miss., 1862. 
Titus, Eonian EmiDeror, born, 41 A. D. 
i^attle or Murfreesboro, 1862. 



Jewish Festivals and Fasts.— 5646.— 3. Clianukah.- 
Hodesh Thebet. 



Rosh 



For the Southern States. 19 



THE VEGETABLE GARDEN. 

The size depends upon tho purposes tor \vhieb it is intended; 
whether the family is large or small, and the time which can be do- 
voted to its cultivation. The most suitable soil i'or a garden is a light 
loam. When the soil is too heavy, it ought to be made light by apply- 
ing stable manure, and vrorking up the ground thoroughly. Trench- 
ing as done in Europe, or North, is not advisable, at least where there 
is any coco, as by trenching the roots of this pest will get so deeply 
incorporated with the soil that it will be very hard afterwards to get 
rid of it. Exposure towards the east is desirable. If there are one or 
more large trees in the garden, or on the immediate outside, their 
shade can be used in wiiich to- sow Celery, Cabbage and other seeds 
during the hot summer months, which will be an advantage. The seed 
beds for this purpose should be so arranged as to receive only the 
morning'or evening sun. It is of the greatest importance that the 
ground should be well drained, otherwise it will be impossible to raise 
good vegetables. The most reliable manure for general purposes is 
\vell decomposed stable or barnyard manure. Cow manure will suit 
best for light, sandy soil; horse manure for heavy, stiff clay lands. 
For special purposes, Peruvian Guano, Blood Fertilizer, Kaw Bone, 
Cotton Seed Meal and other commercial manures may be employed 
with advantage. Of late years most gardeners who work their land 
with a plow% use Cow Peas as a fertilizer with excellent results; They 
are sown broadcast at the rate of 1| bushels to the acre, and when large 
enough they are turned under. Where the land is very sandy, cotton 
seed meal has the most lasting effect. For quick growing crops, such 
as Melons, Cucumbers, etc., the Blood Fertilizer and Guano applied 
in the hills, is very good. Soap suds are good for Celery ; it is astonish- 
ing to perceive the difference in the size of those stalks which are 
w^atered every few days with the suds and others on the same ground, 
which are not. Wood ashes are best for Peas, either used as a top 
dressing when the peas just come out of the ground, or else sprinkled 
in the rows when planted. The New Orleans market gardeners raise 
as fine vegetables as can be produced anywhere; in fact, some varie- 
ties cannot be excelled, and very few gardeners use anything but 
stable manure. 

MotatioBi of crops is another important item. Beets, Carrots 
and other roots should not be- grown in succession on the same 
ground, but should be changed to those which grow above ground, 
such as Lettuce, Beans, Peas, etc. Good seed, good ground and good 
cultivation are essential in order to raise good vegetables. When 
plants are up the ground should bestirred frequently ; weeds ougiit 
not to be suffered to go into seed, but should be destroyed as soon as 
they appear. Hoeing and working the young crops during dry vreather 
is very beneficial, because the w^eeds are then easily killed, and hoe- 
ing the ground will make it retain moisture better than if it were 
left alone. 



20 



Richard Frotschei^'s Almanac and Garden Manual 




THE HOT BED, 



Ov.ing to Tiie op-en ivmrers in the South, hot beds are not so mnch 
used as in the ^vorth. except to raise such tender plants as Egg-Plants. 
Tomatoes and Peppers. There is little forcing of vegetables done 
here, except as regards Cucumbers and Lettuce ; and if we do not have 
any hard frosts, the latter does better in the op~>eu ground than under 
glass. To make a hot bed is a very simple thing. Any one whahas 
the use of tools can make the wooden frame ;. the sashes may be ob- 
tained from any sash factory, I consider a wooden frame from five 
to SIS feet wide, and ten feet sis inches long, a very good size. It 
should be at least six inches higher at the back than in the front, and 
covered by three sashes 3ixo feet. The manure ought not to be over 
one month old ; should be thrown together in a heap, and when com- 
mencing to heat, be worked over with a fork, and all the long and 
-hort manure evenly mixed. In this State the ground is generally 
low. and to retain the heat of the manure for a longer time it is best 
to put the manure on top of the ground— that is. make a bank two 
feet longer and two wider than the frame. Keep the edges straight 
and the corners firm ; when thrown up about eighteen inches, trample 
the manure down to six or eight inches, then put on another layer of 
eighteen inches and trample down again ; place thereon the frame and 
sash, and fill in six inches of good earth. After about five da^'s stir 
the ground to kill the weeds which may have come up, then sow the 
seeds. In lower Louisiana the ground is too wet to dig out eighteen 
inches deep, and then throw in the manure and trample down as re- 
commended in the North. A few hard rains, such as we frequently 
have in winter, and the manure would become so soaked beneath the 
ground that the heat would be gone. Another advantage, when the 
frame is put above the ground, is. that it will go down with the man- 
ure gradually, and there remains always the same space between the 
glass and the ground. If the ground is dug out and the manure put 
into the frame, the ground will sink down so low after a short time 
that the sun will have little effect upon it. and plants will become 
spindly. 



For the Soathei'ii State t 



SOWING SEEDS. 



Some seedg are sown a.t once where they are to remain and mature. 
CTthers are sown in seed beds and transplanted al'terwards. Seeds 
should be covered according to their size, a covering of earth twice 
the size of the seed is about the maximum. Some seeds, such as 
Beans, Corn and Peas, can be covered from one to two inches, and 
they will come up well. Here is a difference again ; Wrinkled Peas 
and Sugar Corn have to be covered lighter and more carefully than 
Marrowfat Peas or the common varieties of Corn. It depends upon 
the nature of the soil, season of the year, etc. For instance, in heavy 
wet soil seeds have to be covered lighter than in sandy light ground. 
Seeds which are sown during summer in the open ground, such as 
Beets and Carrots, should be soaked over night in water and rolled in 
ashes or plaster before sowing ; they will come up quicker. When 
they are sown in a seed bed, the ground should be light enough not 
10 bake after a rain. Some varieties of seeds require shade when sown 
during the summer, such as Cauliflower, Celery and Lettuce. Care 
should be taken to have the shade at least three feet from the ground, 
and shade only after the sun, has been on the bed for tw^o or three 
hours, and remove again early in the. afternoon, so the plants may 
become sturdy. If too much shaded they will be drawn up, long-leg- 
ged, and not fit to be set out in the open ground. The most successful 
cabbage-planters in this neighborhood sow their seed in the open 
ground, towards the end of July and during August, and give them 
no shade, but -water aad keep the ground moist from the day of sow- 
ing till the plants are transplanted. Seed should be sown thinly in 
the seed bed. If plants come up too thickly they are apt to damp off. 

Lettuce seed should be sprouted du)-ing the hot months before 
sowing, according to directions given for June. 

To sow Turnips on a large scale during late summer and early fall 
months, the ground should be prepared in advance, and the seed sown 
just before or during a rain. Small pieces of ground, of course, can 
be sown at any time and watered afterwards. For covering all kinds 
of seeds a fork is preferable to a rake ; with either implement care 
must be taken not to cover the seeds too deep. Beans, Peas and Corn 
are covered with the hoe. Some fine seeds, such as Thyme or Tobac- 
co, are covered enough when pressed with the back of the spade to 
the ground. The seedsman is often blamed for selling seeds which 
have not* come up, when the same are perfectly good, but, perhaps, 
through ignorance the party by whom they w^ere sowm, placed them 
too deep or too shallow in the ground ; or the ground may have been 
just moist enough to swell the seeds, and they failed to come up. At 
other times washing rains after sowing beat the ground and form a 
crust that the seeds are not able to penetrate ; or, if there is too much 
fresh manure in the ground, it will burn the seed, and destroy its 
vitality. 

When seeds, such as Beans, Cucumbers, Melons and Squash, are 
planted before it is warm enough, they are very apt to rot if it rains. 



22 



Richard D^otscher's Almanao und Garden Manual 



Ihs foliowiag TaJbles will be found useful to tlie Gardener, Farmer 

and Amateur, 

QUANTITY OF SEED USUALLY SOWN UPON AN ACRE. 



Beans, D waif, in drills. . , . Ih Bushels, 
Beans, Pole, in hills. ...... 10"to 12 Qts. 

Beets, in drills 4 to 5 lbs. 

Broom Corn, in hiiis .... 8 to 10 Qts. 

Buckwheat 1 Bushel. 

Cabbage, in beds to transplant 1 tb. 

Ca^TGts, in diills 3 to 4 lbs. 

Chinese Sugar Cane 12 Qts. 

Clover, Red, alone .... . . 12 to 15 lbs. 

Clover, White, alone. ... .10 to 12 ib?. 

Clover, Lucerne or Alfalfa. .....: 12 lbs. 

Cora, in hills. ........ : . 8 to 10 Qts. 

Corn, for soiling ., : , . ..-3 Bushels. 

(>ucum.bcr, in hills. . .......... .2 tbs. 

Hepap .... ................ 1| Bushels. 

Mustard, broadcast. .......... 5 Bushel. 

Melon, Musk, in hills .2 to 3 lbs. 

Melon, Water, in hills, ...... 3 to 4 lbs. 

Millet, broadcast. . . .... . .... . 1 Bushel. 



I Oats, broadcast , ..... . . 2 to 3 Bushel^. 

Onion, in drills . . ...... .5 to 6 lbs. 

I Ouion, for Sets, In drills. 20 !bs. 

j OnioD, Sets, in drills. .. .6 to 12 Bushels. 

i Parsnip, in drills 4 to 6 lbs. 

j Peas, in drills ....,...:..., 1| Biishels. 
i Peas, broadcast ... . ' ...... .3 Bushels. 

i Potato, (cut tubers} .. . 10 Bushels. 

' Pumpkin, in hills. ..4-t&€ lbs. 

I Radish, in drills. ......'. . . 8. to 10 lbs. 

Sage, in drills. . . . .' 8 to 10 fos, 

I Salsify, in -drills-. ..-...-.. ',. . .-.8 to 10 tbs. 
j Spinach, in drills. . ... . .-. . IQ.to 12|bs;. 

' Squash, (bush var.,) in hills. 4 to 6 lbs; 
I Squash, (runniug " ) in hills.. "3 LCi'4"lbs. 
j Tomato, to transislant :.■.... . .'$ lb. 

Turnip, in drilis\ . . ..... . . . . i to 2 tbs. 

, Turnip, broadcast. ............ 1 to 2 lbs. 



QUANTITY OF SEEDS REQUIRED FOR A GIVEN NUMBER OF PLANTS. 



plumber of. Hills or Length oi Diilis. 

Asparagus ... 1 oz. to 60 feet of drill. 

Beet 1 " 50 " 

Beans, Dwarf. ...1 qt. to 100 : " 

Beans, Pole 1 qt. to 150 hills. 

Carrot. 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

Cucumber 1 oz. to 75 hills. 

Corn- :..-.... 1 qt. to 200 hills. 

Endive . . . . . . 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

Leek . . ..1 " 100 

Melon, Water 1 oz. to 30 hills. 

Melon, Musk 1 " 60 '' 

Okra 1 oz. to 40 feet of drill. 

Onion ....1 " 100 " 

Onion, Sets, small, Iqt. to 40 ft. of drill. 
Parsley. ...... .1 oz. to 125 feet of drill. 

Note. — The above calculations are 
Summer months, twice the qnantit}' 
amount of plants. 



Jsumber of Hills or Leagtii of Drills. 

i Parsnip 1 oz. to 200 feet of drill. 

I Peas:.. . ......1 qt. to 100 " ^ - 

I Pumpkin . . 1 oz. to 40 hills. 

• Radish 1 oz. to 100 feet of drill. 

i Salsifv. 1 " 70 

I Spinach.. . . . , .:1 "• 100 ■ , " 

i Squash \ . . . . . . . 1 oz. to 75 hills. 

I Turnip ... .... 1 oz. to 150 feet of drill. 

i Cabbage 1 oz. to 2000 plants. 

' Cauliflower .. ....1 '' 2000 " 

Celery. 1 " 3000 " 

: Egg Plant.... 1 '^ 1000 " 

I Lettuce .1 " 3000 " 

I Pepper..... 1 " 1000 " 

1 Toraato. ....... ....1 " 1500 "• 

made for the Spring ; if sown during the 
of seed will be required for the same 



Table showing amount of s 



veral vavi-dties of Grass Seed necessary for an Acre, 
and the number of Pounds in a Bushel. 



No. of iiiS. 

to bushel. 

Barley . . 48 

Blue Grass 14 

Orchard Grass 14 

Red Top Grass 14 

Hungnrian Grass 48 

Millet, German 50 

Tall Meadow Oat Gra.5sl2 

Rescue Grass ... 14 

Timothy. ... 45 

Italian Rye Grass 20 

Bermuda Grass' — 

Red Clover 00 



Quautity for 
one .^cre. 
2 Bush. 
2 •' 



li " 

i " 

3 lbs. 
10 ■•" 



I White Clover. .... . 

i Alfalfa Clover...... 

■ Johnson Grass 

j English Rve Grass . . 

Bye......: 

I Red Rust Proof Oats 

\ Buckwheevt. 

jWheat 

Sorshum 



Nu. of lbs. 
to bushel. 

...60 
60 



I Meadow Fescue Grass 
i Huney Grass, (Holcus 
■ lanatus ... ...... 



25 
,20 
56 
,32 
56 
60 
50 
24 



Quantity for 
One Acre. 

• S lbs. 
8 " 
30 "■ - 
50 '♦ 
II Bush 
U " 

i •< 

5 

I2 



lbs. 
Bush. 



For the Southern States. 



Descriptive Catalogue of Vegetable Seeds, 

ARTICHOKE. 
AiiTiGHAUT (Fr.), Abtischoke (Ger.\ Alcachofa (Sp.). . 




Green Globe Arfciclioke. 

liai*g« Crrecji Cxiobe. This is a. very popular vegetable in the 
So-iith,' and much esteemed by the native as well as the foreign popu- 
lation from the South of Europe. It is extensively cultivated for the 
New Orleans market. It is best propagated from suckers which come 
up around the large plants. Take them off during the fall and early 
winter months ; plant them four feet apart each way. Every fall the 
ground should be m^anured and spaded or plovv^ed between them. If 
■planted by seed, sow them in drills during winter or early spring, 
three inches apart and one foot from row to row ; cover with about 
one-half inch of earth. The following fall the plants can be trans- 
planted and cultivated as recommended ^bove. The seeds I offer are 
imported by me from Itahy^ and of superior quality. . I can also furnish 
sprouts or plant's in "the fall of the year. ' 



■ ASPARAGUS. 
. • -Asp.EEGE (Tr.), Spabgel (Gar.), Espakaoos (Sp.). 

Pnrple Top. The Asparagus is not extensively cultivated in the 
South ; not timt it is not liked well enough, but from the fact that it 
does not succeed as well as in more Northern latitudes. It seems that 
it is short-lived, the roots giving out soon or throwing up very small 
shoots. 



24 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



The ground should be well manured and prepared before either 
the roots or seeds are planted. For this climate the sowing of seed is 
preferable. Boots are generally imported from the ^orth, and I have 
found that the roots raised here, one year old, are as strong as those 
received from the North three years old. Plant the seed in early spring. 
Soak over night in water; plant in rows, or rather hills, one foot apart 
and two feet between ; put from four to five seeds in each hill ; when 
well up thin out to two plants. The following winter, when the stalks 
are cut off, cover with a heavy coat of well rotted manure and a sprink- 
ling of salt ; fishbrine will answer the same purpose. In the spring 
fork in the manure between the rows and keep clean of weeds. The 
same treatment should be repeated every year. The bed should not 
be cut before being three years established. Care must be taken not 
to cut the stalks too soon in the fall of the year---not until we have had 
a frost, if cut before it will cause the roots to throw up young shoots, 
which will weaken them. 



BUSH BEANS. 
Culture, 

Place in rows eighteen inches apart. Plant from end of February, 
and for succession, every two or three weeks to May. During June 
and July Bush Beans planted in this latitude will not produce much. 
August and September are good months in which to plant again ; they 
will produce abundantly till killed by the frost. Do not cover the 
seeds more than tv/o inches. 



POLE BEANS. 

Lima Beans should not be planted before the ground has become 
warm in spring. Strong poles ought to be set in the ground from four 
to six feet apart, and the ground drav/n around them before the seed 
is planted. It is always best to plant after a rain and with the eye of 
the bean down. The other varieties can be planted flat, and not more 
than three to four feet apart, and hilled after they are up. Do not 
cover the seeds more than two inches; one inch is enough for the 
Southern ProlifiG. 



BEANS .—(Dwarf, Snap ofe Bush. ) 
Haricots (Fr.), Bohne (Ger.). Feijolenano (Sp.). 



Extra Early Six Weeks, or New 

ington Wonder. 
Early Valentine Bed Speckled. 
Early Mohawk Six Weeks. 
Early "Yellow Six Weeks. 
German Dwarf Wax. 
White Kidney. 

Extra Early Six Weeks, or Newiug^toii IVoncler, is very 
early, but the pods are small and round. Good for family use. 



Red Speckled French. 
Early China Ecd-Eye. 
Red Kidney. 
i Dwarf Golden Wax (new). 
Best of All. 
Improved Valentine. 



For tlic SoatJierii States. 



Early Valeaitine, one of the best varieties ; pods round, tender 
and quite productive ; not much planted for the market. Excellent for 
shipping. 

EarSy Moiia"Virl£ Six H^eeks. This is a long podded variety, 
and very hardy. It is used to a large extent for the market for the 
first planting ; very productive. 

Early YellOM^ Six "Weeks. This is the most popular sort 
among market-gardeners. Pods flat and long ; a very good bearer, 
but not so good for shipping as the Mohawk or Valentine. 

Oeriaian I^wstrf l¥ax. A new variety which, is unsurpassed 
as a snap bean. Pods are of a wax color and have no strings ; quite 
productive. Has come into genei^al cultivation ; cannot be too highly 
recommended. 

White Kidaiey. A good strong growing variety, not much 
planted. 

Red Speckled. French is another 
strong growing variety, planted a good deal 
for the New Orleans market as a second crop, 
being about ten days later than the Mohawk 
and Yellow Six Weeks. It is hardy and pro- 
ductive. 

Early Chiaia Med-Eye. Early and of 
good quality, but not very popular. 

Ked JKLidaiey. This variety is largely 
planted for the New Orleans market. It is a 
coarse growing variety, and much used for 
shelling when the pods turn yellow, so that 
the beans are well developed but yet soft. 

I>\%^arf Goldera W^ax. (New.) A dwarf 
variety with flat pods, longer than the Dwarf 
German Wax ; entirely stringless and white, 
mottled with purplish red. This variety will 
come into general cultivation, and will in time 
take the place of the black seeded Wax, being 
earlier and more productive. 

ISest of All. A new variety from Germany, 
of great merit It is green podded, long and 
succulent ; it is prolific and well flavor£d. An 
excellent variety for shipping and family use. 
I expect to have a full supply this year. 

Inifiroved Valesitine. This variety has 
all the good qualities of the old Valentine ; 
only, it is 10 days earlier, a great consideration 
when planted for the market. 

Note. I bad the above variety thoroughly tested 
by over fifty growers; had it uiauted with ten other 
varieties, and it came into bearing as soon as the 
Yellow 6 Weeks and Mohawk. It is very prolific. 
4 




Dwarf Golden Wax Eean. 



26 



Bichard Frotschei^'s Almanac and Garden Manual 



BEANS.— Pole OR ErxxixG. 
Haricots a Eames (Fr.i, Staxgex-Bohxex (Ger.), Frljol Yastago iSp.V 
Large Li:\ia. | German Wax or Butter. 

Carolina or Sewee. | SorTHERX Prolieic. 

Horticultural OR Wren's Egg. | Crease B ace. 
Dutch Case Kniee. | 

L.arg'e Lima. A well known and excellent variety. It is the 
best shell bean known. Should hare rich ground, and plenty room 
to grow. 

CarotJna or Sewee. A variety similar to the Lima ; the only 
difference is, the seeds and pods- are smaller. It is generally culti- 
vated, being more productive than the Large Lima. 

Hoi'ticulUiral or TVrcn's £§*§*$ does not grow very strong, 
bears well, pods about six inches long, which are roundish and very 
tender. 

Dutcli Case Knife. A very good pole bean; it is early; pods 
broad and Ions:, somewhat turned towards the end. 

Oeriuan "l^^ax. This is a fine variety, and has the same good 
qualities as the German Dwarf Wax. Pods have a waxy appearance ; 
very succulent and tender. 

Soutlierii Prolific. Xo variety will continue longer in bearing 
than this. It stands the heat of the Summer better than any other, 
and is planted to succeed the other kinds. It is a very strong grower ; 
pods about seven inches long, flat ; seeds dark yellow or rather light 
brown. It is the standard variety for the Xew Orleans market for 
late spring and summer. 

Crease Back.. A variety of Pole Beans which has been culti- 
vated in the South for a long time, but has never come into the trade. 
It is an excellent bean, earlier than the "Southern Prolific." Seeds 
white ; pods round, with a crease in the back, from which the name. 
It is a good grower, bears abundanth^, and if shipped will keep better 
. than most other kinds. It sells better in the spring than any other 
for shipping purposes ; and when in season, it can not be surpassed. 
For early summer, the Southern Prolific is preferable, standing the 
heat better. Some two years ago I received half a bushel from 
near Mobile, Ala., and all the beans of this variety about here can 
be traced back to that half bushel. I supplied two growers in Georgia 
where it was not known at that time. I expect to have a full supply 
this season. There is a light brown bean, streaked and mottled with 
dark brown and black of the same name ; but it is not equal to the 
white variety. In some localities this kind is called "Calico Crease 
Back." The white seeded variety is also known in some sections by 
the name of "Fat Horse." 



ENGLISH BEANS. 

Feve de Marais iFr. ), Puef-Bohne i^Ger.), Haba Comux (Sp,). 
Broad ^Tiudsor. Xot so much cultivated here as in some parts 
of Europe. It is much liked by the people of the Southern part of 
Europe. Ought to be planted during November; as if planted in the 
spring they will not produce much. 



For the Southern States. 



27 






BEETS. 

Betrave (Fr.), Eunkelruebe (Ger.), Bemolacha (Sp.). 



Extra Early or Bassano. 
Simon's Early Ked Turnip. 
Early Blood Turnip. 
Long Blood. 
Half Long Blood. 



Egyptian Bed Turnip. 
Long Ked Mangel Wurzel. 
White French Sugar. 
Silver or Swiss Chard. 



Culture, 



The ground for, beets should be rich and well spaded or plowed. 
Sow in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart, cover the seed about 
one inch deep. Thin them out, when about a month old, to four or six 
inches apart. In this latitude beets are sown from January till the end 
of April, and from the middle of July till the middle of November ; in 
fact, some market gardeners sow some every month in the year. In 
the summer and fall it is well to soak the seeds over night, and roll in 
plaster before sowing. 

- Extra £arly or Bassano, is the earliest variety, but not pop- 
ular on account of its color, which is almost white when boiled. Earli- 
ness is not of so much value here, where there are beets sown and 
brought to the market the whole year round. In the North it is differ- 
ent, where the first crop of beets in the market in' spring will bring a 
better price than the varieties which mature later. 





Simon's Early Ked Turnip Beet. 



Early Blood Turnip Beet. 



Simon's Early Red Turnip. This is earlier than the Blood 
Turnip, smooth skin and of light red color ; planted a good deal by 
the market-gardeners about New Orleans. 

Early Blood Turnip. The most popular variety for market 
purposes as well as family use. It is of a dark red color, and very 
tender. This is the principal variety planted for shipping. My stock 
is raised for me from dark selected roots. 

Eong^ Blood. Is not quite so tender as the foregoing variety ; it 
is not planted at all for the market, and very little for farnily use. In 
the North it is chiefly planted for winter use ; here we have Turnip 



28 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Beets the whole winter from the 
garden ; therefore it has not the 
same value. 

Half LiOiig^ Blood. A very 
dark red variety of a half long 
shape ; a good variety for family 
use. 

£};^yptiau Red Turnip. 

This is a new variety sent out by 
Benary some years ago. It is 
very early, tender, deep red and 
of Turnip shape. Leaves of this 
variety are smaller than of 
others, "^he seeds are also much 
smaller. I recommend it and 
consider it a good acquisition. 

L.oi]g^ Red Mangel m^iir-. 
zel. This is raised for stock; 
it grows to a large size. Here 
in the South where stock is not 
stabled during the winter, the 
raising of root crops is much 
neglected. Being very profitable 
for their food it ought to be 
more cultivated. 




White French Sugar Beet. 



Silver Beet or Swiss Chard. 



White Frencli Sugar, is used the same as the foregoing; not 
much planted. 



For tlie SoutJiern States. 29 



Silver Beet or Swiss €ha.rd. This variety is cultivated for 
its large, succulent leaves, which are used for the same purposes as 
Spinach. It is very popular in the Nev»r Orleans market. 

BORECOLE OR CURLED KALE. 

Chou-vert (Fr.), Gruner Kohl (Ger.), Breton (Sp.). 
Dwarf Oernian Greens. 

A vegetable highly esteemed in the Northern part of Europe, but very 
little cultivated in this covmtry. It requires frost to make it good for 
the table. Treated the same as cabbage. 

BROCCOLL 

Chou Brocoli (Fr.), Spargel-Kohl (Ger.), Broculi (Sp.). 
Purple Cape. 

Resembles the Cauliflower, but not forming such compact heads, 
and not quite so white, being of a greenish cast. We raise such fine 
Cauliflower here that very little Broccoli is raised. 

The Purple Cape is the most desirable variety; cultivated the 
same as Half Early Cauliflower; further North than New Orleans, 
where Cauliflower does not succeed, the Broccoli may be substituted, 
being hardier. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS. 

Chou de Bruxelles (Fr.), Eosen or Sprossen Kohl (Ger.), 
Breton de BRtJSELAS (Sp.). 




A vegetable cultivated the same as the Cabbage, but very little 
known here. The small heads which appear along the upper part of 
the stalk between the leaves, make a fine dish when well prepared. 



30 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Chou Pomme (Fr.), 

Early York. 
Early Large York. 
Early Sugar Loaf. 
Early Large Oxheart. , 
Early Winningstadt. 
Jersey Wakefield. 
Early Flat Dutch. 
Early Drumhead. 
Large Flat Brunswick. 
Improved Early Summer. 



CABBAGE. 

Kopfkohl (Ger.), Eepollo (Sp.j. 

Improved Large Late Drumhead. 
Frotscher's Superior Late 

Flat Dutch. 
Ked Dutch (for Pickling). 
Green Globe Savoy. 
Early Dwarf Savoy. 
Drumhead Savoy. 
St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil. 
Excelsior. 

Culture. 

Cabbage requires a strong, good soil, and should be heavily man- 
ured. To raise large Cabbage without good soil and without working 
the plants well, is an impossibility. Cabbage is sown here almost in 
every month of the year, but the seed for a main crop should be sown 
from July to September. Some sow earlier, but July is time enough. 
For a succession, seed can be sown till November. Early varieties 
are sown during winter and early spring. Cabbage is a very impor- 
tant crop and one of the best paying for the market-gardener. It re- 
quires more work and attention than most peoj)le are willing to give, 
to raise cabbage plants during the months of July and August. I 
have found, by careful observation, that plants raised in August are 
the surest to head here. The most successful gardeners in raising 
cabbage plants, sow the seeds thinly in seed-bed,s, and water several 
times during the day ; in fact, the seed bed never is allowed to get dry 
from the sowing of the seed till large enough to transplant. There is 
no danger in doing this of scalding the plants, as many would sup- 
pose ; but on the contrary, the plants thrive well, and so treated will 
be less liable to be attacked by the cabbage-fiy, as they are too often 
disturbed during the day. Tobacco stems chopped up and scat'tered 
between the plants and in the walks between the beds, are a preventa- 
tive against the fly." 

Early YorK. This is an early variety, but very little grown 
here except for family use. As we have cabbage heading up almost 
the whole year, it has not the same value as in Northern climates, 
where the first cabbage in spring brings a good price. 

I^arg^e Yorlt. About two to three weeks later than the above, 
forming hard heads ; not grown for the market. Ke commended for 
family use. 

Early Sug'ar Loaf. Another pointed variety, with spoon 
shaped leaves ; sown in early spring for an early summer cabbage. - 

Early Eargre Oxheart. An excellent variety, which is later 
than the Large York, and well adapted for sowing in fall or early 
spring. 

Early Wiiiiiiiig:stadt. This is a very fine solid-heading vari- 
ety ; pointed and of good size, of the same season as the Oxheart. It is 
very good for family use. It does not suit the market, as no pointed 
cabbage can be sold to any advantage in the New Orleans market. 



For the Southern States. 



31 





Early York Cabbage. 



Large York Cabbage. 





Early Large Oxheart. 



Early Winningstadfc. 




Large Flat Biunb^\icl 




Early Flat Dutch. 





Green Globe Savoy. 



Early Dwarf Savoy. 



32 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



^ 



N 



-r 






DiiimliG'^u S^ o-- 




St. Denis or Chon Bonneuil. 




Fiot^cliers Sapeiioi L\t> Flit Dutch- 
Jersey \TaSiefieM. Yerj- popular in the North, but little 
planted here. It is of medium size and heads up well. 

Early Flat Otgteli. An intermediate variet}' between the early 
pointed and late varieties. It is not, on an average, as heavy as the 
Oxheart or Winningstadt, but, if raised for the market, more salable 
on account of being flat. Very good variety for family use. 

Early Druniliead. A similar variety to the above; a little 
earlier, and not making as many leaves, can be planted close. A good 
early spring cabbage. 

I.arg-e Flat Briiaiswick. This is a late German variety, intro- 
duced by me about eighteen years ago. It is an excellent variety, and 
when well headed up the shape of it is a true type of a Premium Flat 
Dutch Cabbage. It requires very rich ground, and should be sown 
early, as it is a little m.ore susceptible of frost than the Superior Flat 
Dutch. It is well adapted for shipping, being very hard, and does not . 
wilt so quick as others. At Frenier, along the Jackson Eailroad, this 
is the kind principally planted, and is ])referred over all other varie- 
ties. The people living there plant nothing else except cabbage, 
and have tried nearly all highly recommended varieties, and this 
is their choice. At that place the seeds are sown in October and Novem- 
ber ; the bulk of the cabbage raised there is shipped North in April 
and May, and is the finest which comes to the Chica^ro market. 



For the SoutJiern States. 



33 





Early Drumhead Cabbage. 



Impiovcd Eaily Summer, 



Iimprovcii Early Suniiiier. This cabbage is of recent intro- 
duction- It is not quite so large as the Brunswick, but earlier ; for fall 
it can be sown in August ; for spring, in November, and as late as Jan- 
uary. It heads up rery uniform and does not produce many outside 
leaves. The seed I offer is of the best strain cultivated, and can be plant- 
ed closer together than the late varieties ; say about 8000 to the acre. 

Improved liarge ff.iate Drum lie ad. Fine large variety ; should 
be sown early in the fall for winter, or during December and January 
for late spring use ; it v/ill stand more cold weather than the Brunsvvick. 

Superior l^ate Flat I>»t€li. This is the most popular variety 
for winter cabbage, and cultivated by almost every gardener who 
plants for the New Orleans market. My stock is of superior quality, 
and I venture to say that seventy-five per cent, of all cabbage sold in 
the New Orleans market are of seeds which have been obtained from 
my store. During winter and spring specimens, which are brought as 
samples to my establishment, weighing from fifteen to twenty-five 
pounds, can be frequently seen. In regard to the time of planting see 
remarks under head of cabbage, in the directions for planting for July. 
I have tried seed of the Flat Dutch from different growers, but have 
found none yet to equal the stock I have been selling for years and 
which is raised for me by contract. 

Red Dutch. Mostly used for pickling or salads. Ver5^ little 
cultivated. 

Oreen Olobe Savoy. Medium sized heads, not very hard, but 
all the leaves can be used. This and the following varieties are of fine 
flavor, and preferred by many over the other varieties. 

EarSy D^^arf Savoy. Heads rather small, but solid ; leaves very 
curled and succulent, of a dark green color. Very fine for family gar- 
den. 

Drumhead Savoy. Leaves are wrinkled, but not quite so much 
as the two foregoing kinds. It grows to a good size with large round- 
ish heads. 

St. Denis or €liou Bouneuil. This was at one time one of the 
most popular varieties grown for this market ; but sij^ice a few years it 
has not done as well as formerly, and is therefore planted very little 
now. It wants good ground and high cultivation. It does better for 
spring than for fall. Should be sown in November. 



34 



Bicliard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Excelsior. There are several varieties called by this name. 
What I offer is a second early variety ; light green in color, but few 
outside leaves and a large roundish head. It is as hardy as the Supe- 
rior Flat Dutch, and did excellently when planted for the Spring. 
Seed sown last season as late as January produced line large heads. 
It stands the heat better than the Brunswick. I had it for the first time 
last year, and the seed coming late it was only planted for Spring. 
It was largely planted for a winter crop the iDast season, and next 
year I will be able to tell how it suits for that time. This variety, the 
Brunswick and Early Summer are the best to plant for shipping in 
spring. 

CAULIFLOWER. 

Choufleue (Fr.), Blumenkohl (Ger.), Colielor (Sp.). 
Extra Early Paris. | Early Italian Giant. 

Half Early Paris. Late Italian Giant. 



Early Erfurt. 

Le Normands (short stemmed). 



Imperial (new). 
Large Algiers. 



This is one of the finest vegetables grown, and succeeds well in the 
neighborhood of New Orleans. Large quantities are raised on the sea 
coast in the neighborhood of Barataria Bay. The two Italian varieties 
are of excellent quality, growing to a large size, and are considered 
hardier than the German and French varieties. I have had specimens 
brought to the store, raised from seed obtained from me, weighing six- 
teen pounds. The ground for planting Cauliflower should be very rich. 
They thrive best in rich sandy soil, and require plenty of moisture dur- 
ing the formation of the head. The Italian varieties should be sown from 
April till July ; the latter month and June is the best time to sow the 
Early Giant. During August, September and October, the Le Nor- 
mands, Half Early Paris and Erfurt can be sown. The Half Early 
Paris is very popular, but the other varieties are just as good. For 
spring crop the Italian kinds do not answer, but the early French 
and German varieties can be sown at the end of December and during 
January, in a bed protected -from frost, and may be transplanted 
during February and as late as March into the open ground. If we 
have a favorable season and not too dry, they will be very fine ; but if 
the heat sets in soon the flowers will not obtain the same size as 
those obtained from seeds, sown in fall, and which head during 
December and January. 

Extra Early Paris, the earliest variety, heads small ; very ten- 
der. 

Half Eap'ly Paris. The most popular in the New Orleans mar- 
ket. Heads of good size, white and compact. 

Early Erfurt. This variety is of more dwarfish growth than 
the two former. Heads white and of good size. Heads with certainty. 

Ee Normands is a French variety, and largely cultivated here. 
It stands more dry weather than the other varieties, and has large 
and pure white heads. Not so popular as the Half Early Paris in this 
market, but there is no good reason wliy it should not be, as it is an 
excellent variety in every respect ; stands the heat better than any 
other. 



r ""i"l tmmtmmmm^ '■ -' 



For the Southern Stateti. 



35 




Le Normands, short-stemmed Cauliflower. 




Large Algiers. 

L.arg:c Alg^iers. A French variety of the same season as the Le 
Normands, but a surer cropper. It is one of the best kinds, and will 
take the place of all other second early varieties when better known. 

Early Italian Oiant. Very large fine sort, not quite so late as 
the late Italian, and almost as large. The heads are quite large, white 
and compact, and of delicious flavor, I recommend it to all whohave 
not tried it. When-sown at the proper season it will head with cer- 
tainty, and will not fail to give satisfaction. . 

Late Italian €riant. This is the largest of all the Cauliflowers. 
It is grown to a considerable extent in the neighborhood of New Or- 
leans. It is very large and compact ; should not be sown later than 
June, as it takes from seven to nine months before it heads. 



3G Richard FroUcher's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Early Italian Giant Cauliflo'wer. 

Imperial. (New.) A variety from France, yery 
Le Normands, perhaps a little earlier ; very good ; I 
highly. 



similar to the 
recommend it 



CARROT. 

Garotte (Fr.). Moehre or Gelbe Euebe (Ger.), Zanahoria (Sp.). 
Early Scarlet Horn. | St, Valerie. 



Half Long Luc. 
Danvers Intermediate. 



Half Long Scarlet French. 

Improved Long Orange. 

Long Eed, without core. I 

Eequires a sandy loam, well manured, and deeply spaded up. 
Should be sown in drills ten to twelve inches apart, so the plants can 
be worked after they are up. Gardeners here generally sow them 
broad-cast, and often the roots are small from being crowded too much 
together. 

Earl J" Scarlet Horn. A short stump-rooted variety, of medium 
size, very early and of fine flavor. Not cultivated for the market. 

MaSf Lioog- French Scarlet. This is the most popular variety, 
and extensively grown for the market as well as for family use. It is 
a little later than the Early Horn, but much larger ; bright scarlet in 
color, and of fine flavor. 

MalfL.oiig' Liic. This is a new variety from France. It is as 
early as any previously mentioned, but stump-rooted and larger. It 
is very smooth and of a fine, color. 

Improved IiOci§- Orang^e. This is an old variety, roots long 
and of deep orange color. It is not much cultivated in this section, 
and the flavor is not so fine as that of the two preceding kinds. Valu- 
able for field culture. 



For the Southern t>tate>i. 



37 




Earlv Scarlet Horn Carrot. Half Long Luc Carrot. 



Half Long French 
Scarlet Carrot. 




Long Red Carrot, without core. 



St. Valerie Carrot. Dan vers' Intermediate 



38 



Blchard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



Long Red, without core. A new variety from France, which is 
of cylindrical shape, very smooth, bright scarlet color, and of fine fla- 
vor ; has no heart or core. It is not quite so early as the Half Long, 
but more productive. I consider it a first class variety for the table, 
and one that will come into general cultivation w^hen better known. 

St. Valerie; A new variety from France, bright red in color; a 
little larger and longer than the Half Long French, and stronger in the 
leaves. This is one of the finest carrots, and will in the course of time 
take the place of the Half Long. It is very smooth. 

Dan vers. An intermediate American variety of recent introduc- 
tion. It is of a bright orange color ; very smooth, symmetrically formed ; 
somewhat stump-rooted like the Half Long Luc. It will produce more 
in weight to the acre than any other Half Long variety. 



Large White Solid. 
Sandringham's Dwaef White 
Turnip-Rooted. 



CELERY. 

Celeri (Fr.;, Sellerie (Ger.), Apio (Sp.). • 

Dwarf Large Ribbed. 
Cutting. 



(New.) 




Sow in May and June for early 
transplanting, and in August 
and September for a later crop. 
Sow thinly and shade during the 
hot months. Transplant, wheu 
the plants are six inches high, 
into trenches about four inches 
deep, nine wide, and two and a 
half feet apart, made very rich by 
digging in rotten manure. Plants 
should be from 6 to 8 inches 
apart. When planted out during 
the hot months, the trenches 
require to be shaded, which is 
generally done by spreading 
cotton cloth over them ; lantan- 
ais will answer the same purpose. 
Celery requires plenty of moist- 
ure, and watering with soap- 
suds, or liquid manure, will ben- 
efit the plants a great deal. 
When tall enough it should be 
earthed up to blanch to make it 
fit for the table. - ^ 

Larg^e White Solid is the 
variety mostly grown. Is white, 
solid and crisp. 

Sandringliaui's I>warf 
\%^liite. This is a new variety 
of excellent quality, somewhat 



Large White Solid Celery. 



Fo7^ the Southern States. 



39 




Celeriac or Turnip-Eooted Celery. 



taller than the Incomparable 
Dwarf. It has become very pop- 
ular with the market gardeners. 
Celeriac, or TwrBiiprooted 
Celery, is very popular in some 
parts of Europe, but hardly cul- 
tivated here. It should be sown 
in the fall of the year, and trans- 
planted six inches apart, in rows 
one foot apart. When the roots 
have obtained a good size, they 
are boiled, scraped off, sliced and 
dressed with vinegar, etc., as a 
salad. 

Dwarf Larg^e Ribbed. 
This kind was brought here sev- 
eral years ago from France. It 
is short, but very thick-ribbed, 
solid and of fine flavor. One of 
the very best for here. 

Celery for Soup. This is 
sow^n in the spring of the year, 
broad-cast, to be used for sea- 
soning, the same as Parsley. 




Dwarf, Large Eibbed [new]. 



-10 



RlcJiard FrotsCfier'fi Almanac and Garden Manraal 



CHERVIL. 

Cerfeuil (Ft.), Kerbelkr.^ut (Ger.). 
An aromatic plant used a good deal for seasoning, especially in 
oyster soup, and is often cut between Lettuce when served as a salad. 
In the North this vegetable is very little knowm, but in this section 
there is hardly a garden where it is not found. Sow broad-cast during 
fall for winter and spring, and in January and February for summer 
use. 

COLLARDS. 

A kind of cabbage which does not head, but the leaves are used 
the same as other cabbage. Not so popular as in former years, and 
very little planted. 

CORN SALAD. 

Mache, Doucet (Fr.), Acker Salat (Ger.), Valeriana (Sp.j. 
Broad-leaved Corn Salad is the variety generally cultivated. It is 
used as a salad during the winter and early spring months. Should 
be sown broad-cast during fall and winter, or in drills nine inches 
apart. 

CORN— Indian. 

Mats (Fr.), Welschkorn (Ger.j, Maiz (Sp.). 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. 
Adam's Extra Early. 
Early Sugar or Sweet. 
Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. 
Golden Dent Gourd Seed. 



Early Yellow Canada. 
Large White Flint. 
Blunt 's Prolific Field. (New.) 
Improved Leaming. 



Plant in hills about three feet apart, drop four to five seeds and 
thin out to two or three. Where the ground is strong the Adam's Ex- 
tra Early and Crosby's Sugar can be planted in hills two and a half 
feet apart, as these two varieties are more dwarfish than the other 
varieties. Plant for a succession from February till June. 

Extra Early or Crostoy's I>warf Siig-ar. This is a very early 
variety and of excellent quality. Ears small, but very tender. It is 
not so extensively planted as it deserves to be. 

AdaJii's Extra Early, the most popular variety with market 
gardeners for first planting. It has no fine table qualities, but as it 
grows to a good size, and is matured in about forty days from time of 
planting, it meets with ready sale in the market, and for these reasons 
gardeners prefer it. 

Early Swg-ar or New EngEaiaid. A long eight-rowed variety, 
which succeeds the Extra Early kinds. Desirable variety. 

Stowel's Evergreen Sugar. This is the best of all Sugar Cotel. 
It is not an early Corn, but the ears are of large size, and are well 
filled. It remains green longer than any other variety, and is quite 
productive. The cultivation of this excellent cereal, as well as all 
other Sugar Corn, is much neglected, yet why people will plant com- 
mon field-corn for table use, considering size instead of quality, I can- 
not understand. 



For the Southern States. 



41 






Extra Early Sugar Corn. Early Sugar or New England Corn. Evergreen Sugar Corn. 

Oolden Iftesit Ooaird Seed. A fxeld variety which is very pro- 
ductive at the North. It makes very fine Corn South, but has to be 
planted here several years in succession before it attains perfection, 
as during the first year tlie ears are not well covered by the husk, as 
it is the case with all Northern varieties. When selected and planted 
here for a few years, it becomes acclimated and makes an excellent 
Corn with large, fine ears, grain deep and cob of medium size. 

EarSy YeBlo^w Caraaida. A long, eight-rowed variety. It is 
very early, and is planted in both field and garden. 

liarg-e ll¥liite Flinf. A very popular variety with gardeners 
and amateurs. It is planted here for table use principally, but like 
the Golden Dent makes an excellent variety for field culture after it 
has been planted here for two or three years. 

Bluet's Prolific Field Corn. (New). Thisisa very excellent 
variety, either for the field or for the table. It is very prolific, pro- 
ducing from four to six ears of corn. They are of medium size, but 
well filled and heavy. It is second early. 

lanproved JLteaisaing'. An extra early variety, sold by me for 
the first time last year. It is not hard and flinty ; but sweet and nu- 
tritious, making excellent feed and fine meal. The ears are large and 
handsome, with deep large grains, deep orange color and small red 
cob. It is very productive. The shucks cover the ear better than any 



4i^ Bichard ±rotscher's Alnianac cvivl Garden ATanual 




i Improved Learning. 

Northern or Western variety I have ever tried. It is adapted to a 
variety of soils, and produces vrell on heavy and light soil. 

CRESS. 

Crzsso>' \Yi.\ Eeesse 'Ger. •, Beeeo 'Spj. 

Used for salad during ^vinter and spring. Sow broad-cast or in 
drills six inches apart, ~ - 

Ciii'led or Pepper Grass, !s ot much used in this section. 
Broad-leaved, This variety is extensively cultivated for the 

market. It is sown from early fall to late spring. The leaves resem- 
ble Water Cress ; a variety which does not succeed well here. Is con- 
sidered a verv wholesome dish. 



For t/te Southern States. 



43 



CUCUIV1BER„ 

CoNcoMBRE (Fr.), GuKKE (Ger.), Pepino (Sp.). 
Improved Early White Spine. j Early Cluster. 
Early Frame. | Long Green White Spine. 

Long Green Turkey. I Gherkin or Burr (for pickling). 

•Cucumbers need ricli soil. Plant in hills from three to four feet 
apart ; the hills should be made rich with well decomposed manure, 
and eight to ten seeds should be planted in each hill, and covered 
about one-half inch deep ; when well up thin out to four plants in the 
hill. Hoe between the hills till the vines meet. When the spring is 
dry the plants have to be watered, else they do not keep in bearing 
long. They can be planted from March till Jul3''. A great many cu= 
cumbers are planted here in February, or even sooner, and are pro- 
tected by small boxes with a pane of glass on top. These boxes are 
removed during the day, and put back in the evening. When days 
are cloudy and cold, the plants are kept covered. 

Iiaiproved lEsariy lI'I^Mt® Spine. 

This is the most popular variety. It is 

of medium size, light 

green, covered with 

white Spines, and 

turns white when 
ripe. The best variety for shipping. Of late 
years itls used by most gardeners for forcing as 
well as out-door culture. It is very productive. 

Early Frame. Another early variety, but 
not so popular as the foregoing kind. It is deep 
green in color, but turns yellow very quickly; 
therefore gardeners do not plant it much. 

liOU^ Oreeii Tou^key. A long variety, 
attaining a length of from fifteen to eighteen 
inches when well grown. Very fine and produc- 
tive, „ , ^ 

Early Frame. 

Early C S h s ft e r. Early, short and 
prickly, and bears in clusters. 




Improved Early White Spine. 










Early Cluster. 



West India Gherkin. 



u 



Bichard Vrot^clier' s . Almanac and Garden Manual 



LiOng- Greesa 1-Vlilte S^ine. This is a variety selected from an 
iDiportecl forcing cucumber. It in good for forcing or open ground ; 
very productive, keeps its green color, and has few vines. This vari- 
ety can not be excelled for shipping. 

"iTest Iiaclift Oherkin. This is an oval variety, small in size. 
It is used for pickling when young and tender. When grown to its 
full size it can be stewed with meat. In fact, this is the only use made 
of it about New Orleans. 



EGG-PLANT. 

Aubergine (Fr.i, Eierpflanze (Ger.j, Berengena (Sp.j. 

The seed should be sown in hot-beds in the early part of January. 
When a couple of inches high they should be transplanted into another 
frame, so that the plants may become strong and robust. When 
warm enough, generally during March, the plants can be placed in 
the open ground, about two and a half feet apart. This vegetable is 
very popular in the South, and extensively cultivated. ■ 





e Purple Egg-PIant. 



JLargc PiBrpIe or New Orleans Market. This is the only 
kind grown here ; it is large, oval in shape and of a dark purple color, 
and very productive. Southern grown seed of this, as of a good many 
other tropical or sub-tropical vegetables, is preferable to Northern 
seed, as it will germinate more readily, and the plant will last longer 
during the hot season. 



ENDIVE. 

Chicohee (Ft.), E>'divien (Ger.), Endibia (Sp.). 

A salad plant which is very })opular and much cultivated for the 
market, principally for summer use. It can be sown in drills a foot 
apart, and, when the plants are well up, thinned out till about eight 
inches apart. Or it can be sown broad-cast thinly and transplanted 
the same as Lettuce. When the leaves are large enough, say about 



For ilie Southern Staiei: 



45 



eight inches long, tie them up for blanching, to make them fit for the 
table. This can only be done in dry weather, otherwise the leaves are 
apt to rot. For summer use do not sow before the end of March, as, 
if sown sooner, the plants will run into seed very early. Sow for a 
succession during the 
spring and summer 
months. For winter use 
sow in September and 
October. 

trrceii CuB'led. Is 
the most desirable kind, as 
it bears more heat than 
the following sort, and the 
favorite market variety. 

Extra Fine Curled. 
Does not grow quite so Green Curled Endive, 

large as the foregoing, and is more apt to decay when there is a wet 
summer. Better adapted for winter. 

JBroad-leaved or Escarolle. Makes a fine salad-when well 
grown and blanched, especially for summer. 




fe^ 



KOHL-RABI, OR TURNIP-ROOTED CABBAGE. 

Chou Navet (Fr.), Kohl-Eabt (Ger.), Cox. de Nabo (Sp.). 

This vegetable is very popular with the European population of 
this city, and largely cultivated here. It is used for soups, or prepared 
in the same manner as Cauli- 
flower. For late fall and winter 
use it should be sown from the 
end of July till the middle of 
October; for spring use, during 
January and February. When 
the young plants are one month 
old transplant them iji rows one 
foot apart, and about the same 
distance in the rows. They also 
grow finely if sown broad-cast 
and thinned out when young, so 
that the plants are not too 
crowded ; or they may be sown 
in drills and cultivated the same 
as Kuta Bagas. 

IGarly l^TJaite Vienna. 
The finest variety of all, and the 
only kind I keep. It is early, 
forms a smooth bulb, and has 
few small leaves. The so-called 
large White or Green is not de- 
sirable. Early White Vienna Kohl-rabi. 




Mcrar*'jTi-ari 



46 



Bichard Frotscher's AlmanaG and Garden Manual 




iarge Loudon Fla^ 
Leek. 



LEEK. 

PoiEEAU (Fr.), Laugh (Ger.), Puero (Sp.). 

A species of Onion, highly esteemed for fiayor- 
ing soups. Should be sown broad-east and trans- 
planted, when about six to eight inches high, into 
rows a foot apart and six inches apart in the rows. 
Should be planted at least four inches deep. They 
require to be well cultivated in order to secure large 
roots. Sow in October for winter and spring use, and 
in January and February, for summer. 

Eisirge I^OfidoBs Fl£a^« Is the most desirable 
kind, and that most generally grow^n. 

Sparge Caa^^EEtait. This is a new French vari- 
ety v/liich grows to a very large size. 



LETTUCE. 
Laitue (Fr.), Lattice (Ger.), Lecituga (Sp.). 
Early Cabbage or V/hite Butter- j Drumhead Cabbage. 

HEAD. I WhITE^PaRIS CoSS. '. 

Improved Eoyal Cabbage. j Perpignan. 

Brown Butch Cabbage. I Improved Large Passion. 

Lettuce is sown here during the whole year by the market-gar- 
dener. Of course, it takes a good deal of labor to produce this vege- 
table during our hot summer months. For directions how to sprout 
the seed during tha;t time, see "Work for June." The richer and bet- 
ter the. ground the. larger the head will be. No finer, Lettuce is grown 
anywhere than in New" Orleans during fall and spring. The seed 
should be sown broad-cast, and, when large enough, planted out in 
rows a foot apart, and from eight to ten inches apart in the rows. 
Some kinds grovi larger than others, for instance JButteriiead will not 
require as much space as Drumhead or Perpignan. 




White Paris Coss Lettuce 



Prrpignan Lettnc^ 



,' T!iri wiyfy-r-yttrTVrain^i^r nrayrirttTfcryBrvffwiitrf t 



Fur the Soutliern States. 



47 




:- ''•v^-t^ 



JEaiiy Cabbage ©r 'Wliite Butter. 

An early variety forming a solid head, but 
not quite so large as some others. It is the 
best kind for family use, to sow during fall 
and early spring, as it is very early and of 
good flavor. Early Cabbage or Wbite Butter. 

Improveft MoyaS Cabbage* This is the most popular variety 
in this State. Heads light green, of large size, and about two weeks 
later than the White Butter. It is very tender and crisp ; can be sown 
later in the spring than the foregoing kind, and does not run into seed 
so quickly. 

Br©^i¥ii Bsitcli Cabbage^ A very hardy kind, forms a solid 
head, not so popular as many other kinds 

Brainiliead Cabbage. ^' 

An excellent spring variety 
forming large heads, the outer -i ^ ^^^^/!r?9^i 
leaves curled. A 

l¥Mte Faiis C®ss» This 
is very popular with the New 
Orleans market-gardeners, as it 
is the favorite v/ith the French . 
population. It grows to perfec- 
tion and forms large, fine heads, 
particularly in the spring of the 
y®^^- Drumhead Cabbage Lettuce. 

Fei'pi§-iiais» A fine German variety which forms large iiglit 
green heads, and which stands the heat better than the Boyal. It is 
much cultivated for the market, as it thrives well when sown during 
the latter end of spring. 

Improved lLar§:e Passiois. This is a large Cabbage Lettuce 
from California ; it attains a large size, grows slowly, but heads very 
hard. It does better here during late autumn and winter than in sum- 
mer, as it cannot stand the heat. If sown late in the fall and trans- 
planted during winter, it grows to very large heads, hard and firm. 
It is the kind shipped from herein the spring. 




?i^E LOSS!. — Musk or Canteloupe, 
Melon (Ft.), Melone (Ger.), M^lon (Sp.). 



Netted Nutmeg. 
Netted Citeon. 
Pine Apple. 



Early White Japan. 
Persian or Cassaba. 
New Orleans Market. 



Melons require a rich sandy loam. If the ground is not rich enough 
a couple of shovels full of rotted manure should be mixed into each 
hill, which ought to be from five to six feet apart : drop ten or twelve 
seeds, and Avhen the plants have two or three rough leaves, thin out 
to three or four plants. Canteioupes are cultivated very extensively in 
the neighborhood of New Orleans, and the quality is very fine ; far 



48 



Blchard Fi^otscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



superior to those raised in the North, -Some gardeners plant during 
February and cover with boxes, the same as described for Cucumbers, 
When Melons are ripening too much rain will impair the flavor of the 
fruit, 

[Wetted Hiitoieg Melow. Small oval melon, roughly netted, 
early and ot fine flavor. 

Netted Citron € ante loupe. This variety is larger than the 
foregoing kind ; it is more rounded in shape, medium size and roughly 
netted. 

Pine Apple CanteioMpe. A medium, sized early variety, oval 
in shape, and of very fine flavor. 

Early WMte Japan Canteloupe. An early kind, of creamish 
white color, very sweet, -and of medium size, 

Persian ©r Cassatoa. A large variety, of oval shape, delicate 
flavor. The rind of this kind is very thin, which is a disadvantage in 
handling, and prevents it from being planted for the market. Yery 
fine for family use. 




Note.— The above cut repTesents the New Orleans Melon; it has been taken from a 
common specimen grown by one of my customers, who raises the seed of this variety 
for me. 

New Orleans Market. A large species of the citron kind. It 
is extensively grown for this market ; large in size, very roughly netted 
and of luscious flavor ; different altogether from the Northern Netted 
Citron, which is earlier, but not so fine in flavor, and not half the size 
as the variety grown here. Small varieties of melons will improve in 
size if cultivated here for a number of years, and if care is taken that 



For the Southern States. 



19 



no Cucumbers, Squashes, Gourds or Pumpkin are cultivated in tlie 
vicinity. If the best and earliest specimens are selected for seed, in 
three or four years the fruit will be large and fine. 

melon-Water. 

Melon d'Eau (Fr.), Wassermelone (Ger.), Sandia (Sp.). 
MouNTALN Sweet. j Orange Water. 

Mountain Sprout. I Eattle Snake. 

Improved Gipsey. | Cuban Queen. 

Ice-Cream (White seeded). | 

Water Melon will grow and produce in places where Canteloiipe 
will not do well. The soil for this plant should be light and sandy. 
Plant in hills about eight feet apart, eight to twelve seeds iti a hill ; 
when the plants are well up thin out to three. The plants should be 
hoed often, and the ground between the hills kept clean till the vines 
touch. 




Mountain Sweet Water Melon. 




Improved Gipsey Melon. 



50 Biclmrd Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Moiiiitam Sweet ITafer* This is a very popular variety, is of 
oblong shape, flesh bright scarlet and of good flavor. It is very pro- 
ductive. 

MotBEisaiii Spro5.it '%¥atei% This is simihir in shape to the lorc- 
going variety, but ra^ther later. It is light green v\'ith irregular striijes 
of dark green. Flesh bright scarlet. 

lBiii>r©ved ^ipsey. This is a lately introduced variety which 
has become the favorite of the market-gardeners. It is very large, ob- 
long and of a dark green color, striped and mottled with light green. 
Flesh scarlet, and of delicious flavor. This is without any exception 
the best market variety'. 

lee-Creans. (White Seedei),) A medium sized variety of excel- 
lent quality. It is early and very productive. Being thin in the rind 
it is not so well adapted for the market as the other kinds : notwith- 
standing this, it is grown exclusively by some for that purpose, on ac- 
count of its earliness. It has come into general cultivation more and 
more ever^- year, as it is very sweet, and sells readily in the market. 

Orassg-e Water. Quite a distinct variety from the others. The 
rind can be peeled off the same as the skin of an orange. It is of me- 
dium size, fair quality. Very little cultivated. 

Rattle Snalie. An old Southern variety which has come into 
notice since a few years ; it is of large size, the green not quite so dark 
as the Gipsey, but the stripes larger ; fine market variety. The past 
season, when other varieties failed, it stood the wet weather vrell, and 
sold more readily than others, not having been injured in looks. It 
stands transportation better than any other; has become the stand- 
ard market variety, and taken the place of the Mountain Sweet and 
Mountain Sprout, which were planted in former years. The seed I 
offer of this variety is grown for me by one of the best growers in 
Georgia. It is of the purest strain that can be found. 

CtstBaii ^iteesi, A striped variety highkr recommended by Is orth- 
ern seedsmen ; said to reach from fifty to seventy pounds. Svfeet and 
of vdelicate flavor, but does not grow so large here as said it does North. 

MUSTARD. 

MouTAEDE (Fr.), SExr (Ger.): Mosxaza (Sp.). 
White or Yellow Seeded. \ Lahge-Leaved. 
This is grown to quite an extent in the Southern StateS; and is 
sown broad-cast during fall, winter and spring. It may be used the 
same as spinach, or boiled with meat as greens. The White or Yellow 
Seeded is very little cultivated, and is used chiefly for medical pur- 
poses, or pickling. The Large-leaved or Curled has black seed, a dis- 
tinct kind from the Northern or European variety. The seed is raised 
in Louisiana. It makes very large leaves ; cultivated more and morj? 
every 3,-ear. 

NASTURTiUM. 

Capucixe (Fr.), Ixdl\xische Keesse (Ger.), Capuchixa (Sp.) 
Tall, j Dwaef, 
Not cultivated here, except for ornament. 



For the SouiJiern States. 



51 



OKRA. 

Green Tall Growing. | Dwarf White. 
This is rt liigiily esteemed veo'etatale in the South, and no garden, 
wiiether small or large, is without it, it is used in making "Gumbo," 
a dish the Creoles of Louisiana know how to prepare better than any 
other people. It is also boiled in salt and water, and served with vino- 
gar as a salad, and is considered a very wholesome dish. Should not 
be planted before the ground is warm in spring, as the seeds are apt to 
rot. Sow in drills, which ought to be two to three feet apart, and when 
up, thin out, and leave one or tw^o plants every twelve or fifteen 
inches. 




Tali Growing Olira. 

Tali Oroivmi-. This is the variety most cultivated here. The 
pods are long, round towards the end, and keep longer tender than 
the square podded kind. 

©warf WBiite* This is a very early and prolific variety, remains 
tender longer than any other. It will come into general cultivation 
when better known. The stock of seed I offer has been selected for 
years, and is very pure. 

ONiON. 

Ognon (Fr.), ZwiEEEL (Ger.), Cebolla (Sp.) 



iELL0V\" Dutch or Steassburg. 
Large Eed Wethersfield. 



White, or Silver Skin, 
Creole. 



The Onion is one of the most important vegetables, and is grown 
to a large extent in Louisiana, Hundreds of barrels are shipped in 
spring from here to the Western and JSTorthern States. There is one 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



peculiar feature about raising Onions here, and tliat is they can only 
be raised from Southern, or so-called Creole seed. No seed from 
North, West, or any part of Europe, will produce a merchantable 
Onion in the South. When the crop of Creole seed is a failure, and 
they are scarce, they will bring a good price, and have been sold as 
high as ten dollars a i:iound, Avhen at the same time Northern seed 
could be had for one-fourth of that i^rice. Northern raised seed can 
be sown to be used green, but as we have Shallots here which grow 
during the whole autumn and winter, and multiply very rapidly, the 
sowing of seed for green onions is not protitable. Seed should be 
sown from the middle of September to the end of October, if sown 
sooner too many will throw up seed stalks. They are generally sown 
broad-cast, and when the size of a goose quill transplanted into rows 
one to two feet apart, and about five inches in the rows. Onions are 
different, in regard to rotation, from other vegetables ; they do best if 
raised on the same ground for a succession of years. The price of 
Onions has been good, and it is expected to be good next spring, 
owing to the dry weather North and West, and it is hoped that a good 
IDrofit will be made b}^ those who are in the cultivation of this vege- 
table. 

YelBow Diitcli or StrassbiBa'§". A brownish yellow Onion, flat 
and of good size in the North, but does not bulb here. ^ 

Ldarg-e Hed ll'S^etSaerslieScl. This is the favorite kind in the 
East, but does not answer here, except to be used green. 

White, or Silver §kiia. A mild variety of the same shape as 
the Strassburg. This variety is more apt to make a small onion here 
than the two foregoing kinds are. 




Louisiana or Creole Ocion. 



For the Soutliern States. 



JLoiBi^iama, or CreoBc Onion. This is generally of a light red 
color, darker than the Stra^ssburg, and lighter in color than the Weth- 
ersfield. The seed I have been selling, of this kind, for a number of 
years, has been raised on Bayou Lafourche, and never has failed to 
make fine large Onions. 

The crop of Creole Onion seed having failed two years ago, I sold 
a good deal of Italian seed, and had ample opportunity to see the re- 
sults. The Giant Eocca I have discarded ; it takes too long to bulb 
and is very spongy. The Bermuda and Red Tripoli have done fair, 
but the. onions do not mature as early as the'Creole, and do not keep 
so well, although attaining a very large size, more so the Bermuda. 
They are of mild flavor and well adapted to be used up in spring ; but 
I would not recommend them to be raised for shipping, except the 
White Queen. 

NEW ITALIAN ONIOl^S. - 

New QweeM. This is a medium sized white variety from Italy, 
very early and flat ; can be sown as late as February, and good sized 
bulbs will yet be obtained. It is of mild flavor and very fine v;hen 
boiled and dressed for the table. It can not be too highly recom- 
mended. 

Crsaait Ked Bea'tnuda. Globular in shape, of reddish color, 
darker than the Roeca, otherwise similar. 

SHALLOTS. 

EcHALLOTTE(Fr.), SCHALOTTEN (Ger.j. 

A small sized Onion, which grows in clumps. It is generally grown 
in the South, and used in its green state for soups, stews, etc. There 
are two varieties, the Red and White ; the latter variety is the most 
popular. In the fall of the year the bulbs are divided and set out in 
rows a foot apart, and four to six inches in the rows. They grow and 
multiply very fast, and can be divided during winter and set out again. 
Late in spring, when the tops become dry, they have to be taken up, 
thoroughly dried, and stored in a dry, airy place. 

PARSLEY. 

Persil (Fr;), Petersilie (Ger.j, Perjil (Sp.J. 
Plain Leaved. j Improved Garnishing. 

Double Curled. ^ | 

Parsley can be sown during the fall from August to October, and 
during spring, from end of January to end of April. It is generally 
sown broad-cast. 

Plain L<eaved, This is the kind raised for the New Orleans 
market. 

I>onb!e Cnrled. The leaves of this variety are curled. It has 
the same flavor as the other kind, but is not so popular. 

Isnproved CrarnaslBing. This is the best kind to ornament a 
dish ; has the'same flavor as the other kinds. 



Elchard Frot^c/ter's Aim 



cr.'.d Go.rclen JdcttiuoJ 



PARSNIP. 

Pa>-ais >Tr.), Pasti>-asz (Ger."), Pa5ti>-aca tSp.). • 
Hollow Cbovts, oe Sugae. 

Should be sown in deep, mellow soil., deeply spaded, as the 't roots 
are long, in drills twelve to eighteen inches apart ; when the plants are 
three inches high thin out to three inches apart in the row. Sow from 
September to Xovember for winter, and January to !March for spring 
and summer x?rop5, 

Tlie Hollow Cro^wii, cr Sugar, is the kind generally culti- 
Tated ; it possesses all the good qualities for which other varieties are 
recommended 



PEAS. 

Pois Tr.\. Er;ESE (Ger.) GriSA>'TE Sp.'. 
EAELIEST. 

Extra Eaelt, or Eiesi Avr Best, j Eapjly Tom Teumb, 1 foot. 

2i feet- I LASTo^'■'5 Alpha, 3 feet. 

Eap.ly WASHiy&TOv.. 3 feet. ' A:mlp.ica>' Wovdep., ''Xcw.' li feet. 

SECOVB CEOP. 

Bishop's Dwaef Lo::sg Pod, Itfeet. . ATcLeax's Little Gem, li feet. 
CHA:^IPI0^" OF Exg-laxd, 5 feet. | Laxtox's Peolieic LoyG Pod, 3 ft. 
^IcLeax's Advavcee. 3 feet. ! Er&EviE. 3 feet, 

GEXEEAL CEOP. 



DwAEE Blee Impebial , 3 feet. 
KoTAL DwAET T^IaPvEOw, 3 feet. 
Black Eyed 3Ialieoweat. 1 feet. 



Laege White jIaeeoweat, J; feet. 
I DwAEE Sugae, 24 feet. 
I Tall Sugae, 6 feet. 



Peas are a fine vegetable and therefore are very generally culti- 
vated. It is best to plant in ground manured the previous year, else 
they ^ill make more vines than peas. As a general thing the dwarf 
kinds require richer ground than the tall growing varieties. Marrow- 
fat Peas planted in rich ground will not bear well, but they produce 
finely in sandy, light soil. 

The Extra Early, Tom Thumb, or Laxton's Alpha will not produce 
a large crop without being in rich ground. Peas have to be planted 
in drills two inches deep and from two to three feet apart, according to 
the height they may grow. Tom Thiimb can be planted one foot 
apart, whereas "White Marrowfat or Champion of England require 
three feet. The Extra Early, Alpha and Tom Thumb can be planted 
during August and September for fall . During Xovember and Decem- 
ber we plant the Marrowfats ; January and Eebruary, as late as March, 
all kinds can be planted, but for the latter month only the earliest 
varieties should be used, as the late varieties will get mildewed before 
they bring a crop. Peas will bear much better if some brush or rods 
are stack in the drills to support them, except the veiw dwarf 
kinds. 



For the Soutlicrn Slates. 



Extria l]]arly ot First aaad 
Best. This is the earliest Pea cul- 
tivated ; very popular with the small 
market gardeners here, who have 
rich grounds. It is very productive fei^ 
and good flavored. The stock I sell 
is as good as any sold in the coun- 
try, not surpassed by any, no mat- 
ter v/hose name is put before "Extra 
Early.'" 

E]sa.r8y Wsisli^iigtc^si., Early 
Mayor Frsngiie, which are all 
nearly the same thing ; is about ten 
days later than the Extra Earl^'. 
It is very productive and keeps 
longer in bearing tha,n the fore- 
going kind. Pods a little smaller. 
Very popular about New Orleans. 

To Ml Tlisamb. Yeryclvv-arf 
and quitrt! productive. Can be cul- 
tivated in rovv's a foot apart; re- 
quires no branches or sticks. 

Ijuxioii's AIpSi^o This is a 
variety of recent introduction ; it is 
the earliest wrinkled variety in cul- 
tivation ; of delicious flavor and very 
proliflc. This variety deserves to 
be recommended to all who like a 
first class pea. It will come into 
general cultivation when better 
known. 

AfiMericaia "^^©sicleFo (New.) 
A wrinkled pea of dwarf growth, 10 
to 12 inches ; it is prolific, early and 
of fine quality ; it comes in after the Extra Early. 

Bisliop's Bivarf X.©^^ Fod, An early dwarf variety, very 
stout and branching, requires no sticks, but simply the ea,rth drawn 
round the roots. It is very productive and of excellent quality-. 

ClBaisipioe of EEigiaM«l, A green, wrinkled variety of very 
fine flavor; not profitable for the market, but recommended for 
family use. 

McL<eaM's Advasices', This is anobher green, wrinkled variety, 
about two weeks earlier than the foregoing kind. 

McI^eaRi's liJtJle Ixeoi, A dwarf, wrinkled variety, of recent 
introduction. It is early, very prolific and of excellent flavor. Re- 
quires no sticks. 

liaxtom's Prolific £«©aig: Pod. A green marrow pea of good 
quality. Pods are long and well filled. It is second early, can be re- 
commended for the use of market-gardeners, being very prolific. 




Extra Early or First and Best. 



56 EidiCird Frotscliey's Almnnac and Garden Manual 



Eii§-esiie. A white wrinkled variety, of fine flaYor; it is m the 

same season as the Advancer. Cannot be too highly recommended for 
family use. 

Dwarf Blue Imperial. A very good bearer if planted early; 
pods are lar.ee and well filled. 

Koyal Dwarf MarrovT. Similar to the large Marrowfat, but 
of dwarf habit. 

BlacK Eyed Z?Iarrowfat. This kind is planted more for the 
market than any other. It is very productive, and when young, quite 
tender. Grows about four feet high. 

JLarge "1^'Iiite Marrowfat. Similar to the last variety, except 
that it grows about two feet taller, and is less productive. 

Dwarf §ii^ar. A variety where the Tvhole pod can be used, 
after the string is drawn off from the back of the pod. Three feet 
high. 

Tail Siii^ar. Has the same qualities as the foregoing kind, only 
grows taller, and the pods are somewhat larger. Neither of these two 
varieties are very popular here. 

THE PEA BUG. 

All peas grown near Philadelphia have small holes in them, caused 
by the sting of the Pea Bug, while the pod is forming, when it deposits 
its egg in it. Later the insect perfects itself and comes out of the dry 
pea, leaving the hole. 

The germ of the pea is never destroyed, and they grow equally as 
well as those without holes. Market-gardeners in this neighborhood 
who have been planting the Extra Earh^ Peas for years, will not take 
them without holes, and consider these a trade mark. 

FIELD OR COW PEAS. 
There are a great many varieties of Cow Peas, different in color 
and growth. They are planted mostly for fertilizing purposes, that 
is sow^n broad-cast, and Avhen a good stand and of sufficient height, 
they are plowed under. The Clay Pea is the most popular. There 
are several varieties, called crowders, which do not grow as tall as the 
others, but produce a great many pods, which are used green, the 
same as snap-beans, and if dried, like dried beans, make a Tery 
good dish. The crowders are of an oblong shape, almost pointed at 
one end ; they are on an average larger than the other Field Peas. 
Lady Peas are small, white, with a black eye ; they are generally 
planted between corn, so that they can run upon it. Dry, they are 
considered the very best variety for cooking. 

PEPPER. 

PiMENT (Fr.), Spjl>'ischee PrEEFEK (Ger.i, Pimento (Sp.). 
Bell or Bull Xose. | Long Eed Cayenne. ^' ' ^ 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous. { Eed Cheery. 

New Golden Dawn Mango. I Bird Eye. 

Peppers are tender and require to be raised in the hot-bed. Seed 
should be sown in January, and when large enough transplanted into 
the ground in rows from one and a half to two feet apart, and a foot 
to a foot and a half in the rows. There are more Peppers raised here 



For the Southern States. 



than in other sections of the country ; the hot varieties are used for 
seasoning and making pepper sauce ; the mild variety is highly es- 
teemed for salad. Care should be taken not to grow different kinds 
close together, as they mix very readily. 

S^veet §p£&iiisli, or Mon- 
strous. A very popular variety, 
much cultivated, and used for salad. 
It is very mild, grows to a large size, 
tapering towards the end. 

New Ooldeii BawBi Maiag-o. 
This new sv/eet pepper attracted much 
attention last season, and was admired 
by all who saw it. I believe it to be 
all the originator claims for it. In 
shape and size it resembles the Bell. 
Color, a bright waxy golden yellow; Yevy 
brilliant and handsome. Single plants 
ripen from twelve to twenty-four fruits, 
making them productive and profit- 
able. They are entirely exempt from 
any fiery taste or flavor, and can be 
eaten as readily as an apple. 

BeJl or MuU Wose. Is a large 
oblong variety which is not sweet or 
mild, as thought by some. The seeds 
are ver^'- hot. Used for pickling. 





Red Cherry Pepper. 



Long- Eed Cayenne Pepper. 



I^ong: Red Cayeuaie. Is very hot and pungent. Cultivated 
here and used for pepper sauce and seasoning purposes. There are two 
varieties ; one is long and straight, the other like shown in cut. which 
IS the only kind I keep. 

Med Ciierry. A small roundish variety, very hot and productive. 

Bird Eye. Small, as the name indicates. It is verv hot and 
used principally for pepper vinegar. 



58 Pdchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 

POTATOES. 

PoMME DE Terre (Fr.)j Kartoffel (Ger.). 



Early Kose. 

Breese's Peerless. 

Kussets. 

Extra Early Vermont. 



Snowflake. 
Beauty of Hebron. 
White Elephant. 



Potatoes thrive and produce best in a lis"ht, dry but rich soil. 
Well decomposed stable manure is the best, but if it cannot be had, 
cotton seed meal, bone dust, or any other fertilizer should be used to 
make the ground rich enough. If the ground was planted the fall 
previous with Cow Peas, which were plowed under, it will be in good 
condition for Potatoes. Good sized tubers should be selected for 
planting, which can be cut in pieces not too small ; each piece ought 
to contain at least three eyes. Plant in drills from two to three feet 
apart, according to the space and how to be cultivated afterwards. 
For field culture two and a half to three feet apart ; for garden, two 
feet will answer. We plant potatoes here from end of December to 
end of March, but the surest time is about the first of February. If 
planted early they should be planted deeper than if planted late, and 
hilled up as they grow. If potatoes are planted shallow and not hilled 
soon, they will suffer more, if caught by a late frost, than if planted 
deep and hilled up well. Early potatoes have not the same value here 
as in the North, as the time of planting is so long, and very often the 
first planting gets cut down by a frost, and a later planting, which may 
just be peeping through the ground, will escape and produce in ad- 
vance of the first planted. A fair crop of potatoes can be raised here, 
if planted in August ; if the autumn is not too dry they will bring nice 
tubers by end of November. They should not be cut if planted at this 
time of the year, but planted whole. They should be put in a moist 
place before planting, so they may sprout. The early varieties are 
preferable for this time of planting. 

I have been handling several thousand barrels of potatoes every 
season for planting, and make Seed-Potatoes a specialty. The potatoes 
I sell are Eastern grown, which, as every one interested in potato 
culture knows, are superior and preferable to Western grown. 

I have tried and introduced all new kinds here ; but of late so 
many have come out that it is almost impossible to keep up with 
them. New varieties of potatoes come out with fancy prices, but these 
prices for new potatoes do not pay here, as we can keep none over for 
seed, and any person raising for the market would not realize a cent 
more for a new fancy variety per barrel, than for a barrel of good 
Peerless or Early Kose.. Earliness is no consideration, as we plant 
from December to end. of March. Somebody may plant Early Kose 
in December and another in February, and those planted in February 
come to the market first ; it depends entirely upon the season. If 
late frosts set in, early planted potatoes will be cut down, and those 
just coming out of the ground will not be hurt. The Jackson White 
has given but little satisfaction the last three years, except in cases 



For the Southern States. 



59 



where planted very early. The yield was very good, but the quality 
poor and very knotty. Perhaps this was the fault of the season. It 
is hardly planted any more for the market. Up to now the Peerless 
is the standard variety. Among the new kinds I have tried, I find 
the White Elephant to be a fine potato. It is a very strong grower, 
tubers oblong, very productive, good quality and flavor. It is late and 
will come in at the end of the season if planted with the earlier varie- 
ties. The Extra Early Vermont, Beauty of Hebron, Snowflake and 
Early Rose for early, and Peerless and White Elephant for late, are 
as good varieties as exist, anditisnotlikely that we will have anything 
better by new introductions. Most people are not careful enough in 
selecting their seed. Some of the potatoes sold in this market for 
seed are not fit for planting. 

EarSy ISosc. This is, without any doubt, the best potato for the 
table. It is oval, very shallow-eyed, pink-skinned, very dry, and mealy 
when boiled. It has not become so popular as it deserves as a market 
variety, as pink or red potatoes do not sell so well here as the white 
kinds. This variety should not be planted too soon, from the fact 
that they make small stalks, and if cut down by frost, they suffer 
more than other varieties. No better potato for family use. Every 
one who plants ought to plant some of this variety, but they want 
rich, light soil to grow to perfection. 

Bfl'eesc's Peerless. Twelve years ago this variety was in- 
troduced, yet at present it is the leading variety for market as well as 
for family use. Skin dull white, sometimes slightly russetted ; eyes 
few and shallow, round, occasionally oblong ; grows to a large size, 
very productive and earlier than the Jackson White. As white 
potatoes are more salable than pinkish kinds, and as this variety is 
handsome in appearance, and of good quality, it has become the 
general favorite in this section. 








60 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



SSossets. This kind is still planted by some. It is round, red- 
dish and slightly russetted. Eyes deep and many, Yery productive, 
but not so fine a quality as some others. Does best in sandy soil, such 
as we have along the lake coast. If the season is dry it will do well, 
but in a wet season, this variety will rot quicker than any other. 

Extra Early Ver- 
mont. Very similar to 
the Early Eose, but of 
a stronger growth; a 
little earlier, and the 
tubers are more uni- 
form and larger. It is 
an excellent table vari- 
ety. 

Siiowflake. This is 
a very early variety. 
Tubers good medium 
size ; elongated, very 
uniform and quite pro- 
ductive. Eyes flat on 
the body of the tuber, 
but compressed on the 
seed end. Skin white, 
flesh very fine grained, 
and when boiled snow- 
white. 

Beauty of Hebron. 

I have tried this variety 
very thoroughly, and 
have found it all that it 
has been represented. 
It is earlier than the 
Early Eose, which re- 
sembles it very much, 
being a little lighter and 
more russetted in colo,r. 
It is very productive 
and of excellent table 
quality ; more mealy 
Extra Early Vermont. than the Early Eose. 

^Wliite Elepliasat. This variety has given entire satisfaction 
the past season, the tubers are large and of excellent quality ; planted 
alongside of the Peerless, it produced fully one-third more than that 
variety. 

THE SWEET POTATO. 

Convolvulus batatas. 

The Sweet Potato is next to corn the most important food crop in 

the South. They are a wholesome and nutritious diet, good for man 

'and beast. Though cultivated to a limited extent on the sandy lands 

of New Jersey and some of the middle States, it thrives best on the 




For the Sout]ier,i States. fil 



light rich lands of the South, which bring their red and golden fruits 
to greatest perfection under the benign rays of a southern sun. It is a 
plant of a warm climate, a child of the sun, much more nutritious than 
the Irish Potato on account of the great amount of saccharine matter 
it contains, and no southern table should be found without it from the 
first day of August till the last day of May. Some plant early in 
spring the potato itself in the prepared ridges, and cut the vine from 
the potato when large enough, and plant them out ; others start the 
potatoes in a bed prepared expressly for that purjjose, and slip off the 
sprouts as they come up, and set these out. The latter method will 
produce the earliest potatoes, others who set out the vines, say that 
they make the largest tubers. In preparing the land the soil should 
be thoroughly pulverized, the ridges laid off about live feet apart, well 
drawn up and rather flat on top. If everything is ready, and time for 
planting has arrived, do not wait for a rain, make a paste of clay and 
cow manure; in this dip the roots of the slips and press the earth 
ftrmly around them. Old slips are more tenacious of life than young 
ones, and will under these circumstances answer best. Watering 
afterwards, if dry weather continues, of course, will be beneficial. 
Otherwise plant your vines or slips just before or after a rain. Two 
feet apart in the row is considered a good distance. The ridges 
should never be disturbed by a plow from the time they are made un- 
til the potatoes are ready to be dug. 

Scrape off the grass and young weeds with the hoe, and pull up 
the large ones by hand. Crab grass is ijeculiarly inimical to the sweet 
potato, and should be carefully kept out of the patch. The vines 
should never be allowed to take root between the rows. Sweet pota- 
toes should be dug before a heavy frost occurs ; a very light one will 
do no harm. The earth should be dry enough to keep it from sticking 
to the potatoes. The old fashioned potato bank is the best arrange- 
ment for keeping them, the ma,in points being a dry place and venti- 
lation. 

Vaineties generally cultivated in the South. 

The Yam. Taking into consideration quality and productive- 
ness, the Yam stands at the head of the list. Frequently when baked 
the saccharine matter in the shape of candy will be seen hanging to 
them in strings. Skin and flesh yellow, and very sweet. Without a 
doubt, the best potato for family use. 

Soutttern Queen. Very similar to the former, but smoother, 
the tubers having no veins or very few. 

Slianii^liai or CaliforGiia Yaip. This is the earliest variety 
we have, frequently, under favorable circumstances, giving good 
sized tubers two months after planting the vine. Very productive, 
having given 300 bushels per acre when planted early and on rich 
land. Is almost the only kind cultivated for the New Orleans market. 
Skin dull white or yellow, flesh white, dry and mealy, in large speci- 
mens frequently stringy. 

There are some other varieties of Sweet Potatoes highly prized in 
the West, but are not appreciated here. The Bed and Yellow Nanse- 



62 Fdcltcird Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



mond are of fine quality and productive, but will not sell so well as 
the California Yam when taken to market. For home consumption 
thev are fine, and deserve to be cultivated. 



PUMPKIN. 

PoTiRON (Fr.), KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza (Sp.j. 

Kentucky Field. | Cashaw Ceook IN'ece:. 

Large Cheese. ' 

Are generally grown in the field, with the exception of the Ca- 
shaw, which is planted in the garden ; but great care must be taken not 
to plant them close to Squashes or Melons, as they will mix and spoil 
the quality of the same. Plant in hills from eight to twelve feet 
apart. 

Kentucky Field. Large round, soft shell, salmon color; very 
productive ; best for stock. 

i^arge Cheese. This if of a bright orange, sometimes salmon 
color, fine grained, and used for the table or for stok feeding. 

Cashaw (Croofe. ^^eck.) This is very extensively cultivated in 
the South for table use. There are two kinds, one all yellow and the 
other green striped with light yellow color. The latter is the prefer- 
able kind ; the flesh is fine grained, yellow and very sweet. It keeps 
well. This variety takes the place here of the Winter Squashes, w^hich 
are very little cultivated. 

RADISH. 

Eadies, Eaye (Fr.), Eadies, Eettig (Ger.), Eabano (Sp.) 

Early Long Scarlet. I Scarlet Half Long French. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. Scarlet Olive-shaped, White- 

Yellow Summer Turnip. tipped or French Brkikfast. 



Early Scarlet Olive-shaped. 
White Summer Turnip. 



Black Spanish ^Winter). 
Chinese Eose (Winter). 



This is a very popular vegetable, and grown to a large extent. 
The ground for radishes should be rich and mellow. The early small 
varieties can be sown broad- cast among other crops, such as beets, 
peas, spinach, or where lettuce has been transplanted. Earh' varie- 
ties are sown in this section the whole year, but during summer they 
require frequent watering to make them grow quickly. The Yellow and 
White Summer Turnip are best for planting during the summer 
months. The Half Long Scarlet French is the only red kind raised 
for the New Orleans market, and all the other cities in the United 
States taken together do not use as many of that one variety as iSTew 
Orleans does. I have sold nearly two thousand pounds of the seed 
per annum for the last twelve 3^ears. 

Early liOiig- Scarlet. This is a very desirable variety, it is of 
a bright scarlet color, short top, and very brittle. 

Early Scarlet Turnip. A small, round variety, the favoriie 
kind for family use. It is very early, crisp and mild when young. 



For the Southern States. 



63 





Yellow Summer iurnip. 



Early Long Scarlet. 





Scarlet Half Long French. 



Early Fcarlet Turnip. 



Yellow !§iisaiBaiei' Tua'itip. This stands the heat better than 
the foregoing kinds. It is of an oblong sliape, yellow russetted on the 
top. It should be sown very thinly. Best adapted for summer and 
fall sowing. 

Early Scarlet Olive-siiaped. .This is similar to the Half 
Long French, but shorter, and not quite so bright in color. It is 
early and of good quality. Top short. 



6-i 



Fiicharcl FroUchers Almanac and Garden :Manual 



IfVIiite §uiiiiiaer Tiii'siip, This is a summer and fall variety. 
Oblong in shape, skin Vk-hite, stands the heat well, but not much used. 

Scarlet Half JLoasg- Frencli. This is the most popular Eadish 
for the marker. It is of a bright scarlet color, and when well grown 
from two to three inches long, very brittle and tender. 

§carlet Olive-sliaped, White tipped, orFreaich Breakfast, 
A handsome Eadish of the same shape as the foregoing kind, with 
end and root white. Quite tender. 

Blacfe Spaiiisli. (.Wixtee.j This is sown during fall and early 
winter. It is oval in shape, very solid, and stands considerable cold 
v\-eather without being hurt. It can be sown broad-cast between 
Turnips, or planted in rows a foot apart, and thinned out from three 
to four inches in the rows. 

Cliinese :Ro$e. (Wixter.j This is of a half long shape, bright 
rose color. It is as hardy as the last described kind, but not so popu- 
lar. 

ROQUETTE. 

EoQUETTE iTr.i. 
Sown from September to March. It is used as a salad, resembling 



the Cress in taste. 



Salsipis (Fr, 



SALSIFY, oeOysteePla^^t. 

, Hafeewuezel TGer/u Ostea Te&etal iSp.'. 

A vegetable which ought to be more cul-- 
tivated than it is. It is prepared in different 
ways. It partakes of the flavor of oysters. 
It should be sown in the fall of the year .; not 
later than Xovember. The ground ought to 
f^ be manured the sprint' previous, and deeply 
spaded up, and well pulverized. Sow in drills 
about ten inches apart, and thin out from three 
to four inches in the rows. 

SPINACH. 

Epixaed i.Fr.), Spi^at iGer. i. Espinago iSp..). ' 
Extea Laege Leaved Savoy. 
Beoad Leaved Elaxdees. 

A great deal of this is raised for the New 
Orleans market. It is very popular. Sown 
from September to end of March. If the fall 
is dry and hot, it is useless to sow it, as the 
seeds require moisture and cool nights to 
make them come up. The richer the ground 
the larger the leaves. 

Extra L-arge JLeavecl Savoy. The 
leaves of this variety are large, thick and a 
little curled. Tery good for family use. 

Broad I^eaved FIaiider§. This is the 
Salsify or Oyster Plant. .^^^^^^^.^^ ..^^^i^^,.^ ^^^.j, f ^, j,,^^,ket and family 

use. Leaves large, broad and very succulent. 




For tlie Southern States. 



SORREL. 

OsEiLLE (Fr.), Sauerampfer (Ger.), Acedera (Sp.) 
Planted in drills a foot apart, during the fall of the year ; and 
thinned out from three to four inches in the drills. Sorrel is used for 
various purposes in the kitchen. It is used the same as Spinach ; 
al$o, in soups and as a salad. 

SQUASH. 

CouRGE (Fr.j, KiiRBiss (Ger.), Calabaza Tontanera (Sp.). 
Early Bush, or Patty Pan. | London Vegetable Marrow. 

Long Green, or Summer Crook- | The Hubbard. 

NECK. I Boston Marrow. 

Sow during' March in hills from three to four feet apart, six to 
eight seeds. When w^ell up, thin them out to three of the strongest 
plants. For a succession they can be planted as late as June. Some 
who protect by boxes plant as soon as the first of February, but it is 
best to wait till the ground gets warm. When it is time to plant Corn, 
it is time to plant Squash. 




Early Bush or Patty Pan. Long Green or Summer Crook Neck. The Huhbard. 

Early Busli, or Fatty Fan. Is the earliest and the only po- 
pular kind here. All other varieties are very little cultivated, as the 
Cashaw Pumpkin, the striped variety, takes their place. It is of dwarf- 
ish habit, grows bushy, and does not take much room. 

L.ong' Oreen, or §iBBSiiMer Crooli-MecSi. This is a very 
strong grower, and continues in bearing longer than the first named 
kind. It is of good quality, but not so popular. 

l<oiidoii Veg-etable Marrow. A European variety, very little 
cultivated here. It grows to a good size and is very dry. Color, 
whitish with a yellow tinge. 

Tlie Hubbard. This is a Winter Squash, very highly esteemed 
in the East, but hardly cultivated here. 

Boston Marrow. Cultivated to a large extent North and East 
for winter use, where it is used for custards, etc. It keeps for a long- 
time and is of excellent quality, but not esteemed here, asmostpeo])le 
consider the Southern grown Cashaw Pumpkin superior to any Win- 
ter Squash. 



66 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



TOMATO, 

TOMATE(Fr.) LlEBESAPFEL (Ger.), TOMATE (Sp.). 



Extra Early Dwarf Bed. 
Early Large Smooth Eed. 

TiLDEN. 

Trophy, (Selected). 
Large Yellow. 



Acme. (New.) 
Paragon. (Nev/.) 
Livingston's Perfection. 
Livingston's Favorite- 



Seed should be sown in January, in hot-beds, or in boxes, which 
must be placed in a sheltered spot, or near windov/s. In March they 
can be sown in the open ground. Tomatoes are generally sown too 
thick, and become too crowtied when two to three inches high, which 
makes the plants too thin and spindly. If they are transplanted when 
two to three inches high, about three inches apart each way, they will 
become short and sturdy, and will not suffer when planted out into 
the open ground. Plant them from three to four feet apart. Some 
varieties can be planted closer; for instance for the Extra Early, 
which is of very dwarfish habit, two and a half feet apart is enough. 




Selected Trophy. 



For the Southern States. 



07 



They should be sup- 
ported by stakes. When 
allowed to grow up wild, 
the fruit which touches 
the ground will rot. For 
a late or fall crop the seed 
should be sow^n towards 
the latter end of May 
and during June. 

Extra EarBy I>%^arf» 
This is the earliest in cul- 
tivation. It is dwarfish 
in habit ; fruit larger than 
the following kind, and 
more flat; bright scarlet 
in color and very pro- 
ductive. For au early 
market variety it cannot 
be surpassed . 




The New Acme. 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Early I^argfe Smooth Ked. One of the earliest ; medium size ; 
skin light scarlet ; smooth and productive. 

Tiideii. This has been the standard variety for family garden 
as well as market, but has been supplanted to a great extent by later 
introductions. It is of a good shape, brilliant scarlet, and from above 
medium to large in size, and keeps well. 

SeSected Tropliy. A very large, smooth Tomato, more solid and 
heavy than any other kind. It is not quite as early as the Tilden. Has 
become a favorite variety. 

£.ar^e Yelio^Vo This is similar in shape to the Large Eed, but 
more solid. Not very popular. 

Acme. This is a new variety and the prettiest and most solid 
Tomato ever introduced. It is of medium size, round and very smooth, 
a strong grower and a good and long bearer. They are the perfection 
of Tomatoes for family use, but will not answer for shipping purposes ; 
the skin is too tender and cracks when fully ripe. Of all the varieties 

introduced none yet has 
surpassed this kind, 
when all qualities are 
brought into considera- 
tion. It does well about 
here where the ground is 
heavy. 

Parag-oii. This vari- 
ety has lately come into 
notice. It is very solid, 
of a bright reddish crim- 
son color, comes in about 
tlie same time as the Til- 
den, but is heavier In foli- 
age, and protects its fruit. 
It is productive and keeps 
long in bearing. Well 
adapted for shipping. 
l<iviaigstoii's Perlectioii* 
Very similar to the above in shape 
and color. 

l^iviiigston's Favorite. This 
is the latest novelty; it is as perfect 
in shaije and as solid as the Acme, 
but much larger, and of a handsome 
dark red color. I had some sent 
to me by a customer, and they 
surely were the finest specimen of 
tomatoes I ever saw, and were ad- 
mired by everybody who saw them 
They will keep well and do not 
crack. 

The seed of the last four varieties are raised for me by the originators, Messrs. 
Livin,i4stou's Sous, and can be relied upon as being truo to name and of superior 
quality. 




Livingston's Perfection. 




Livingston's Favorite. 



For ike Southern States. 



69 



TURNIP. 

Navet (Fr.), -RiiBE (Ger.), Nabo Comun (Sp.). 



Early Ked or Purple Top, 

(strap-] eavedj. 
Early White Flat .Dutch, 

(strap-leaved). 
Purple Top Globe. 
Large White Globe. 
PoMERiAN Globe. 
White Spring. 
Yellow Aberdeen. 



Golden Ball. 
Amber Globe. 
Early Purple Top Munich. 
Extra Early Purple Top. 
Purple Top Euta Baga. 
Improved Ruta Baga. 
Extra Early White French, 
White Egg Turnip (new). 



OR 



Turnips do best in new ground. 
When the soil has been worl^ed long, 
it should receive a top dressing of 
land-plaster or ashes. If stable man- 
ure is used the ground should be man- 
ured the spring previous to sowing, so 
it may be well incorporated with the 
soil. When fresh manure is used the 
turnips are apt to become speckled. 
Sow from end of July till October for 
fall and winter, andjn January, Feb- 
ruary and March for spring and sum- 
mer use. They are generally sown 
broad-cast, but the Paita Baga should 
be sown in drills, or rather ridges, and 
should not be sown later than the 
end of August ; the Golden Ball and 
Aberdeen, not later than the end of 
September. The White Flat Dutch, 
Early Spring and Pomerian Globe 
are best for spring, but also good for 
autumn. 




Early Red or Purple Top, 
(strap-leaved). 




Early White Flat Dutch, (strap-leaved). 



70 



Bicharcl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Early Med, or Fwrple Top. (Stbap-Leaved.) This is one of 
the most popular kinds It is flat, with a small tap-root, and a bright 
purple top. The leaves are narrow and grow erect from the bulb. The 
ilesh is finely grained and rich. 

Early lIl^lBiie Fiat BsiteBi. (Strap-Leaved.) This is similar to 
the above in shape, but considered about a week earlier. It is very 
popular. 




Pui'ple Top Globe. 



Fsaa'pSe Top <Gl&lbe. A variety of recent introduction; sanie 
shape as the Pomerian Globe, but with purple top. Tine variety for 
the table or for stock. It is not quite so early as the Early Eed or 
Purple Top. I recommend it very highly. 

liarg'e Wlsite C^Iofee. A very large variety, mostly grown for 
stock. It can be used for the table when young. Flesh coarse, but 
sweet ; tops very large. 



For the Southern States. 



71 



FoaneriaM Oflobe. 

This is selected from 
the above. It is 
smoother and hand- 
somer in shape ; good 
to plant early in 
spring. When pulled 
before it is too large 
it is a very salable 
turnip in the market 
"Wlaitc SprijrBgr* 
This is similar to the 
White Flat Dutch; 
not quite so large, 
but rounder in shape. 
Tiie tops are larger ; 
it is early, a good 
quality, and best 
adapted for spring 
planting. 

deeeis This is a 

variety very litt'.e 
cultivated here. It is 





E3:tra Early white French. 



Pomerian Globe. 

shaped like the Ruta Baga, color 
yellow with purple top. Good 
for table use or feeding stock. 

KotberlsoBi's ^^oicaesiBafil, 
is the best of the 3'eliow Tur- 
nips for table use. It is very 
smooth, oval* in shape, and of 
a beautiful orange color. Leaves 
are small. Should be sown in 
the fall of the year, and always 
in drills, so that the plants can 
Voe thinned out and worked. 
This kind ought to be more cul- 
tivated. 

Aiuher ^iotoe> This is 
very similar to the above kind. 

Early Purple Top 
MuaiicSis. A new variety from 
Germany; flat, with red or 
purple top ; same as the xiioeri- 



^'-^'-^'iTrTi^mi^yfsarre 



V-2 



Bicliard Frotsclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



can variety, but fifteen days earlier to mature. It is very hardy, 

tender and of fine flavor. Kecoramended higlily. 

Extra EaaJy PiirpJe Top. Same color and shape as the Early 

Purple Top, but earlier. Larger than the Purple Top Munich. 

Ptarple Top Ruta 
]IBaga or Swede. This 
is grown for feeding- 
stock, and also for table 
use. It is oblong in shape, 
yellow flesh, very solid. 
Should always be sown in 
rows or ridges. 

Improved Purple 
Top Mut a B a g^ a . 
Similar to the above; 
bulb smoother, with but 
few fibrous' roots. 

Extra Early White 
FrenclB, ar White 
Egg- Tiiriiip. This is 
a lately introduced var- 
iety; is said i to be very 
early, tender and crisp. 
The shape of it is oblong, 
resembling an egg. Hav- 
ing tried it, I found it as 
represented, quickly 



sweet. It never, will '-be- 
come a favorite market 
variety, as only flat kinds 
sell well in this market. 
It has to be pulled up 
soon, as it becomes pithy 
shortly after attaining 
maturitv. 




Improved Purple Top Euta Baga 



SWEET AND MEDICINAL HERBS. 

Some of these possess culinary as well as medicinal properties. 
Should be found in every garden. Ground w^here they are to be sowm 
should be well prepared and pulverized. Some of them have very fine 
seed, and it is only necessary, after the seed is sowm, to press the ground 
w^ith the back of the spade ; if covered too deep they cannot come up. 
Early spring is the best time to sow them — some, such as Sage, K6se~ 
mary. Lavender and Basil, are best sown in a frame and afterwards 
transplanted into the garden. 

Anise, PimpineUe Anisum. 

Balm, MeMsse Officinalis. 

Basil, large and small lea,ved, Ocijmum Basilicum. 

Bene, Sesamum Orientale. 



For the Southern States. 



73 



Borage, Borago Officinalis. 

Caraway, Carum Carni. 

Dill, Anethum Graveolens. 

Eennel, sweet, Anethum Foeniculum. 

Lavender, Lavendula Vera. 

Majoram, sweet, Origanum Mayoram. 

Pot Marigold, Calendula Officinalis. 

Kosemary, Bosemary Officinalis. 

Eue, Euta Graveolens. 

Sage, Salvia Officinalis. 

SuniDier Savory, Satureja Hortensis. 

Thyme, Thymas Vulgaris. 

Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium. 



GRASS AND FIELD SEEDS. 

I have often been asked what kind of Grass Seed. is the best for 
this latitude, but so far I have never been able to answer this question 
satisfactorily. For hay I do not think there is anything better than 
the Millet. For permanent grass I have almost come to the conclusion 
that none of the grasses used for this purpose North and West will 
answer. Eye, Red Oats and Rescue Grass will make winter pasturage 
in this latitude.. Different kinds of Clover answer very well during 
spring, but during the hot summer months I have never found any- 
thing to stand and produce except the Bermuda and Crabgrass, which 
are indigenous to the South. The Bermuda, in my opinion, is better 
suited for pasturage than hay, as it is rather short and hard when 
cured. I have had so many applications for Guinea Grass that I have 
been induced to import soQie from Jamaica, where it is used altogether 
for pasturage. It seems to grow rank, but so far I am not enabled to 
pass an opinion upon it; it looks rather coarse for hay. Having tried 
Guinea Grass I have come to the conclusion that it will not answer 
for here, from the fact that it will freeze out every year. It will pro- 
duce a large quantity of hay or green fodder, but has to be resown 
every spring. The seeds that are raised here are light, and do not 
germinate freely. To import seed every year is rather troublesome. 
The Johnson Grass advertised by some as Guinea Grass, is not Guinea 
Grass ; it is much coarser, and can hardly be destroyed after having 
taken hold of a piece of ground. Some are enthusiastic about Alfalfa 
or Lucerne; others, whose opinion ought also to be respected, say it 
will not do here. There exists a great difference of opinion in regard 
to whicb grass seed is most suitable for the South. 

Red CSover. Should be sown either during fall or early in 
spring. Six to eight pounds to an acre. 

■White Hutch CBover. A grass sown for pasturage at the rate 
of four to six pounds to the acre. Should be sown in early spring. 

Alsike Clover. This is also called Hybrid Clover. It is a na- 
tive of Sweden, a. cold climate, and does not succeed so well here as 
the other kinds, because of burning out in summer. 
7 



74 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



ASfalfa or CSiifii Clover, or French JLucerne. This va- 
riety does well here, but the j^round has to be well prepared and deeply 
plowed. It will not do in low, wet ground. Should be sown in Janu- 
ary or February ; eight to ten pounds per acre. (See letter of E. M. 
Hudson at end of Seed Catalogue). 

Kentucky Blue Grass* (Extra Cleaned.) Should be sown 
in dry soil. Two bushels per acre. 

Meadow Fescue, Festuca pratensis. As a pasture grass I con- 
sider this one of the most valuable. It is not affected by dry weather, 
as its roots penetrate the earth 12 or 15 inches, it is much relished by 
all kinds of stock on account of its long and tender leaves. It yields 
a very superior hay when cured. It has been grown very little in this 
country and is deserving of much more attention. Sow in spring or 
fall. 2 bushels to the acre. 

Orchs^rd Crrass, This is one of the best grasses for pasturing. 
It grows quickly, much more so than the Blue Grass. Can be sown 
either in fall or spring. Sow one to one and a half bushels per acre. 
(See extract from "Farmers' Book of Grasses.") 

Mescue Grass. A forage plant from Australia. It grows during 
winter. Sow the seed in the fall of the year, but not before the weather 
gets cool, as it will not sprout so long as the ground is warm. Sow 
IJ bushels seed to the acre. 

IIung:arian Grass. This is a valuable annual forage plant and 
good to make hay. Sow three pecks to the acre, It should be cut 
when in bloom. 

German Millet. Of all the Millets this is the best. It makes 
good hay, and produces heavily. Three pecks sown to the acre 
broad-cast secures a good stand. Can be sown from April till June, 
but the former month is the best time. Shou'd be cut the same as the 
foregoing kind. 

Kye. Is sown during the fall months as lato as December, for 
forage : and for pasturage, during winter and si-Ting. 

Barley, Fall. Can be so'vn fall and winter, but requires strong, 
good s.iii. Used here for for'd.-se during: its green state. 

Hed or ESaist Pr<(5©f ©fits. It is only a few years since these 
oats have come into general cultivation. They are very valuable 
and will save a great deal of corn on a farm. The seed of this variety 
has a reddish cast, and a peculiar long beard, and is very heavy. It 
is the only kind which will not rust in the Southern climate. They 
can be sown as early as October, but should be pastured down as 
soon as they commence to joint, till February. When the ground is 
low, or the season wet, this cannot well be done without destroying the 
whole crop. During Januarv and ebruary is the proper time, if 410 
pasturing can be done. One to one and a half bushels per acre is suf- 
ficient. These oats have a tendency to stool, and therefore do not re- 
quire as much per acre as common oats. Those who have not already 
tried this variety should do so. 

§org:liuin. Is planted for feeding stock during the spring and 
early summer. For this purpose it should be sown as early in spring 



For tJiC Southern States. 75 



as possible in drills about two to three feet apart; three to four quarts 
per acre. It makes excellent green fodder. 

Broom €oj*bi. Can be planted the same as corn, but the hills 
closer together in the row. Six quarts will plant an acre. 

E«st Iiidisi Mallet. My Almanac of 1879 gave a full descrip- 
tion of this forage plant, written by E. M. Hudson, Esq. It has pro- 
ven to be all that has been claimed for it. 

Beroiniida Grass. Almost everybody living in this section of 
the country knows this grass ; it is i)lanted as a Lawn Grass, and 
nothing will stand the sun better or will make a prettier carpet, when 
kept short, than this grass It is also very valuable as a pasture and 
hay grass. For the first time I have been able to obtain the seed of 
this grass, which heretofore had to be propagated by the roots. 
Six pounds will sow an acre. Should be planted in spring, but can be 
sown later. It takes from 20 to 25 days to sprout, requires damp 
weather and hot sun ; but when once up grows very rapidly. Price 
$2.00 per lb ; postage, 16 cents per lb extra. 



The following extracts have been taken, by permission, from the 
author, Dr. D. L. Phares, from his book just jmblished, "Farmers' 
Book of Grasses." It is the most valuable work of the kind ever pub- 
lished in the South, and should be in the hands of every one who 
takes an interest in the cultivation of grasses. 

Copies for sale at publisher's price. Paper covers, 50 cents ; Cloth, 
75 cents ; postage paid. 

ORCHARD GRASS. 

(DactyHs Glomerata) 

Of all the grasses this is one of the most widely diffused, growing 
in xifrica, Asia, and every country in Europe and all our States. It is 
more highly esteemed and commended than any other grass, by a lar- 
ger number of farmers in most countries -a most decided proof of its 
great value and wonderful adaptations to many soils, climates and 
treatments. Yet, strange to say, though growing in England for 
many centuries, it was not appreciated in that country till carried 
there from Virginia in 1764. But, as in the case of timothy, soon after 
its introduction from America, it came into high favor among far- 
mers, and still retains its hold on their estimation as a grazing and 
hay crop. 

Nor is this strange when its many advantages and points of excel- 
lence are considered. It will grow well on any soil containing suffi- 
cient clay and not holding too much water. If the land be too tena- 
cious, drainage will remedy the soil ; if worn out, a top dressing of 
stable manure will give it a good send-off, and it will furnish several 
good mowings the rst year. It grows well between 29^ and 48" lati- 
tude. It may be mowed from two to four times a year, according to 
the latitude, season and treatment ; yielding from one to three tons of 




Blchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



excellent hay per acre on poor to medium land. In grazing and as 
hay most animals select it in preference among mixtures in other 
grasses. In lower latitudes it furnishes good winter grazing, as well 
as for spring, summer and fall. After grazing or mowing few grasses 
grow so rapidly (three or six inches per week), and are so soon 
ready again for tooth or blade. It is easily cured and handled. It is 
readily seeded, and catches with certainty. Its long, deeply penetra- 
ting, fibrous roots enable it to sustain itself and grow vigorously dur- 
ing droughts that dry up other grasses, except tall oat grass, which 
has similar roots and characteristics. It grows well in open lands 
and in forests of large trees, the underbush being all cleared off. I 
have had it grown luxuriantly even in beech woods, where the roots 
are superficial, in the crotches of roots and close to the trunks of trees. 
The hay is of high quality, and the young grass contains a larger per 
centage of nutritive digestible matter than any other grass. It thrives 
well without any renewal on the same ground for thirty-five, nay 
forty years ; how much longer I am not able to say. It is easily exter- 
minated when the land is desired for other crops. Is there any other 
grass for which so much can be said ? 



BED TOP GRASS. 

( Agrostis Vulgaris. ) 

This is the best grass of England, the herd grass of the Southern 
States ; not in honor of any man, but probably because so well adapted 
to the herd. It is called also Fine Top, Burden's and Borden's Grass- 
Varying greatly in characters, according to soil, location, climate and 
culture, some botanists have styled it A. Polnmorplia. It grows two to 
three- feet high, and I have mown it when four feet high. It grows 
well on hill-tops and sides, in ditches, gullies and marshes, but de- 
lights in moist bottom land. It is not injured by overflows, though 
somewhat prolonged. In marshy land it produces a very dense, strong 
network of roots capable of sustaining the weight of men and animals 
walkirig over it. 

It furnishes considerable grazing during warm "spells" in winter, 
and in spring and summer an abundant supply of nutrition. It has 
a tendency, being very hardy, to increase in density of growth and ex- 
tent of surface, and will continue indefinitely, though easily subdued 
by the plow. 

Cut before maturing seed it makes a good hay and large quantity. 
It seems to grow taller in the Southern States than it does further 
North, and to make more and better hay and grazing. Red top and 
timothy, being adapted to the same soil and m.aturing at the same 
time, do well together and produce an excellent hay. But the red top 
will finally root out timothy, and if pastured much it will do so sooner. 

Sow about two bushels (34 lbs.) per acre, if alone, in September, 
October, February or March; if with timothy for hay, from 6 to 10 
pounds ; if with other grasses for pasture, 3 to 5 pounds. It is an ex- 
cellent pasture grass, and will grow on almost any kind of soil. 



For the Southern States. 



77 



KENTUCKY BLUE GRASS. 

(Poa Fratenais.) 

This is called also smooth meadow grass, spear grass, and green 
grass, all three very appropriate, characteristic names. But Blue is a 
misnomer for this grass. It is not blue, but 'green as grass' and the 
greenest of grasses. The F. compressa, Hat-stalked meadow grass, 
wire grass, blue grass is blue, 'the true blue' grass from which the 
genus received its trivial name. 

Kentucky blue grass, known also in the Eastern States as June 
grass, although esteemed in some parts of America as the best of all 
pasture grasses, seems not to be considered very valuable among Eng- 
lish farmers except in mixtures. It is certainly a very desirable pas- 
ture grass however. Its very narrow leaves, one, two or more feet 
long, are in such profusion and cover the ground to such depth with 
their luxuriant growth that a mere description could give no one an 
adequate idea of its beauty, quantity and value ; that is on rich land. 
On poor, sandy land, it degenerates sadly, as do other things uncon- 
genially located. 

Perennial, and bearing cold and drought well, it furnishes grazing 
a large part of the year. It is specially valuable as a winter and 
spring grass for the South. To secure the best winter results, it should 
be allowed a good growth in early fall, so that the ends of the leaves 
being killed by frost afford an ample covering for the under-parts 
which continue to grow all winter, and afford a good bite whenever 
required by sheep, cattle, hogs and horses. In prolonged summer 
drought it dries completely, so that if fired, it would burn off clean. 
But this occurs in Kentucky, where indeed it has seemed, without fire, 
to disappear utterly ; yet when rain came, the bright green spears 
promptly recarpeted the earth. 

With its underground stems and many roots, it sustains the heat 
and drought of the Southern States as well as those of Kentucky; 
where indeed it is subjected to severer trials of this kind than in the 
more Southern States. In fact, it bears the vicissitudes of our climate 
about as well as Bermuda grass, and is nearly as nutritious. 

Blue grass grows well on hill tops, slopes, or bottom lands, if not 
too wet and too poor. It may be sown any time from September to 
April, preferably perhaps in the latter half of February, or early in 
March. The best catch I ever had was sown the 20th of March, on 
unbroken land, from which trash, leaves, etc., had just been burned. 
The surface of the land should be cleaned of trash of all kinds, smooth, 
even ; and if recently plowed and harrowed, it should be rolled also. 
This last proceeding is for compacting the surface in order to prevent 
the seed from sinking too deep in the ground. Without harrowing 
or brushing in, many of them get in too deep to come up, even when 
the surface of the land has had the roller over it. The first rain after 
seeding will put them in deep enough, as the seeds are very minute, 
and the spears of grass small as fine needles, and therefore unable to 
get out from under heavy cover. These spears are so small as to be 
invisible, except to close examination, and in higher latitudes, this 



78 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



condition continues throuj^'h the .first year. Thus, some who have 
sown the blue grass seed, seeing the first year no grass, imagine they 
have been cheated, plant some other crop, and probably lose what 
close inspection would have shown to be a good catch. This, however, 
is not apt to occur in the Southern tier of States, as the growth here is 
more rapid. The sowing mentioned above, made on the 20th of 
March, came up promptly, and in three months the grass was from sis 
to ten inches high. One year here gives a finer growth and show than 
two in Kentucky or any other State so far North. 

Sown alone, 2) to 26 pounds, that is, 2 bushels, should be used ; in 
mixtures, 4 to 6 pounds. 



ENGLISH OK PEHKNNIAL RYE GRASS, 

{Lolium Ferenne.) 

This is the first grass cultivated in England over two centuries ago, 
and at a still more remote period in France. It was long more widely 
known and cultivated than any other grass, became adapted to a 
great variety of soils and conditions, and avast number (seventy or 
more) varieties produced ; some of which were greatly improved, while 
others were inferior and became annuals. Introduced into the United 
States in the first quarter of the current century, it has never become 
very popular, although shown by the subjoined analysis of Way not to 
be deficient in nutritive matter. In 10) parts of the dried grass cut in 
bloom w^ere albuminoids 11.85, fatty matters 3.17, heat-producing 
principles 42.24, woody fibre 35.20, ash 7.54. The more recent analysis 
of Wolff and Knopp, allowing for water, gives rather more nutritive 
matter than this. 

It grows rapidly and yields heavy crops of seed, makes good graz- 
ing and good hay. But as with all the Eye grasses, to make good hay 
it must be cut before passing the blossom stage, as after that it deteri- 
orates rapidly. The roots being short, it does not bear drought well 
and exhausts the soil, dying out in a few years. In these respects it 
is liable to the same objections as timothy. The stem one to two feet 
high, has four to six purplish joints and as many dark green leaves. 
The flexions spiked panicle bearing the distant spikelets, one in each 
bend. 

It should be sown in August or September, at the rate of twenty- 
five or thirty pounds or one bushel seed per acre. 



TALL MEADOW OAT GRASS. ^ 

{Arrhenaiherum Avenaceum.) 

Evergreen grass in Virginia, and other Southern States, and it is 
the Tall Oat (Avena elation of Linseus. It is closely" related to the 
common oat, and has a beautiful open panicle, leaning slightly to one 
side. "Spikelets two flowered and a rudiment of a third, open ; lowest 
flower staminate or sterile, with a long bent awn below the middle of 
the back." - (Flint.) 



Fur the Sonthera States. 



It is widely naturalized and well adapted to a great variety of soils. 
On sandy, or gravelly soils, it succeeds admirably, growing two or three 
feet high. On rich, dry upland ir grows from five to seven feet high. It 
has an abundance of perennial, long fibrous roots, penetrating deeply 
in the soil, being therefore less affected by drought or cold, and enab- 
led to yield a large quantity of foliage, winter and summer. These ad- 
vantages render it one of the very best grasses for the South, both for 
grazing (being evergreen) and for hay, admitting of being cut twice a 
year; It is probably the best winter grass that can be obtained. 

It will make twice as much hay as timothy, and containing a 
greater quantity of albuminoi is, and less of heat-producing principles, 
it is better adapted to the uses of the Southern farmer while it exhausts 
the surface soil lees, and may be grazed indefinitely, except after mow- 
ing. To make good hay it must be cut the instant it blooms, and, after 
being cut, must not get wet by dew or rain, which damages it greatly 
in quality and appearance. 

For green soiling, it may be cut four or five times with favorable 
seasons. In from six to ten days after blooming, the seeds begin to 
ripen and fall, the upper ones first. It is therefore a little troublesome 
to save the seed. As soon as those at the top of the panicle ripen suffi- 
ciently to begin to drop the heads should be cut off and dried, when 
the seeds will all thresh out readily and be matured. After the seeds 
are ripe and taken off the long abundant leaves and stems are still 
green, and being mowed make good hay. 

It may be sown in March or April, and mowed the same season ; 
but for heavier yield, it is better to sow in September or October. 
Along the more southerly belt, from the'31^' parallel southward, it may 
be sown in November and onward till the middle of December, When- 
ever sown it is one of the most certain grasses to have a good catch. 
Not less than two bushels (14 pounds) per acre should be sown. Like 
timothy, on inhospitable soils, the root may sometimes become bul- 
bous. The average annual nutrition yielded by this grass in the 
Southern belt is probably twice as great as in Pennsylvania and other 
Northern States. 



JOHNSON GRASS. 

(SorgJiiim Imldpense.) 

This has been called Cuba grass, Guinea grass, Egyptian gras?, 
Means grass, Alabama Guinea grass, etc. 

It seems pretty well agreed now, however, to call it Johnson grass, 
and leave the name Guinea grass for the Panicum jiimenioruni, to 
which it properly belongs. 

It is true that in Mr. How^ard's pamphlet, as well as in many period- 
icals and books, and in letters and common usage, this grass has been 
far more generally called Guinea grass than the true Guinea grass it- 
self, thus causing vast confusion. I^ is, therefore, assuredly time to 
call each by its right name. Johnson grass is perennial and has cane- 
like roots, or more properly underground stems, from the size of a 
goose-quill to that of the little finger. These roots are tender, and 



80 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



hogs are fond of and thrive on them in winter. The roots literally fill 
the ground near the surface and every joint is capable of developing 
a bud. Hence the grass is readily propagated from root cuttings. It 
is also propagated from the seed, but not always so certainly; for in 
some localities many faulty seeds are produced, and in other places 
no seed are matured. Before sowing the seed, therefore, they should 
be tested, as should all grass seeds indeed, in order to know what pro- 
portion will germinate, and thus what quantity per acre to sow. One 
bushel of a good sample of this seed is suCQcient for one acre of laud. 

The leaf, stalk and panicle of this grass resemble those of other 
sorghums. It grows on any land where corn will grow; and like the 
latter, the better the land the heavier the crop. On rich land the 
culms attain a "size of over half an inch in diameter and a height of 
seven feet. It should be cut while tender, and then all live stock are 
fond of it; for a few weeks are sufficient to render it so coarse and 
hard that animals refuse it, or eat sparingly. 

A few testimonials are here quoted to give an idea of the produc- 
tiveness and value of this plant. In a letter published in the Eural 
Carolinian for 1874, Mr N. B. Moore, who had for more than forty 
years grown crops, speaks of this grass under the name of Guinea 
grass : 

"My meadow consists of one hundred acres of alluvial land, near 
Augusta. * * * In -winter I employ but four men, w^ho are 
enough to work my packing-press; in summer when harvesting, 
double that number. In autumn I usually scarify both ways with 
sharp, steel-toothed harrows, and sow over the stubble a peck of red 
clover per acre, which, with volunteer vetches, comes off about the 
middle of May. The second yield of clover is uniformly eaten up by 
grasshoppers. The tap root remains to fertilize the then coming 
Guinea grass, which should be cut from two to three feet high. * '■' * 
On such land as mine, it will afford three or four cuttings if the season 
is propitious. I use an average of five tons of gypsum soon after the 
first cutting, and about the same quantity of the best commercial fer- 
tilizers in March and April. * * * The grass, which is cut before 
noon, is put up with horse sulky rakes, in cocks, before sun-down." 

Mr. Moore's income from this field was from seven thousand to ten 
thousand dollars a year. 

Mr. Goelsel, of Mobile, says: "It is undoubtedly the most profitable 
soiling plant yet introduced, and also promises to be the plant for our 
Southern hay stacks, provided it can be cut every three or four weeks." 

Note.— Eecognizing all the above, I would say, that great care must 
be taken not to sow this grass near cultivated lands. If done, it should 
not be allowed to go to seed, as the wind will blow them off from the 
stalks, and when it gets amongst cane or other crops, it causes a great 
deal of trouble. It is almost impossible to get it out of the land. 

RESCUE GRASS. 

{Ceraiochloa auHtralis or Bromus Schraderi.) 

It is an annual winter grass. It varies in the time of starting growth. 
I have seen it ready for mowing the first of October and furnish fre- 
quent cuttings till April. Again, it may not start before January, nor 



For the Soatherri States. 



81 



be ready to cut till February. This depends upon the moisture and 
depression of temperature. When once started, its growth after the 
successive cuttings or grazings is very rapid. It is tender, very sweet, 
and stock eat it greedily. It makes also a good hay. It produces an 
immense quantity of leaves. On loose soil some of it may be pulled 
out by animals grazing it. I have seen it bloom as early as November 
when the season has favored and no grazing or cutting were permitted. 
Oftener it makes little start before January. But whether late or early 
starting, it may be grazed or mo^ved frequently, until April, it still will 
mature seed. It has become naturalized in limited portions of Texas, 
Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and perhaps other States. It is a 
very pretty grass in all its stages ; but especially when the culms two 
or three feet high are gracefully bending v^ith the weight of the diffuse 
panicle with its many pedicelled, flattened spikelets, each an inch or 
more long and with twelve to sixteen flowers. 

I would not, however, advise sowing this grass on poor land with 
the expectation of getting a remunerative return. It tillers abundantly 
under favorable conditions. 



DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 



The directions given here are for the Southern part of Louisiana. 
If applied to localities North of here, the time of planting will not be 
quite so early in spring, and earlier in fall. For instance : the direc- 
tions for January will answer for February in the Northern part of 
this State and Southern part of Mississippi or Arkansas. In autumn, 
directions for September can be followed in August. In those sections, 
very little can be planted in November and December. 



JANUARY. 

Sow Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnips and Leeks, the 
early varieties of Kadish, and for the last crop, the Black Spanish. 

Sow Spring and Purple Top Turnip. Kuta Baga may also be sown, 
for table use later in spring. 

Sow Lettuce, Endive, Cabbage, Broccoli, Kohlrabi and early Cauli- 
flower; the latter best sown in a frame to be transplanted next month. 

Cress, Chervil, Parsley and Celery for cutting, should be sown this 
month. Sow Roquette and Sorrel. 

If the hot-bed has not been prepared already, make it at once to 
sow Egg Plant, Pepper and Tomatoes. 

All kinds of Herb seed may be sown during this month. Plant Peas 
for a general crop, towards the end of the month the Extra Early va- 
rieties may be planted. 



82 Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Plant Potatoes, but the Early Rose should not be planted before 
the latter end of this month. 

Divide and transplant Shallots. Transplant Cabbage plants sown 
in November. Onions, if not already set out, should be hurried with 
now, so they may have time to bulb. Those who desire to raise Onion 
sets, should sow the seed this month, as they may be used for setting 
out early in the fall, and can be sold sooner than those raised from 
seed. Creole seed is the only kind which can be used to raise sets from. 
Northern seed will not make sets. This I know from experience. 
Asparagus roots should be set out this month. 

Eed Oats can be sown. I consider these and German Millet the 
two best annual forage plants for Louisiana 

Cucumbers can be j^lanted in the hot-bed; they are mostly planted 
here during November and December, but if the hot-bed is properly 
made, those planted in this month will bear better than*those planted 
in November. 

FEBRUARY. 

All winter vegetables can be sown this month, such as Spinach, 
Mustard, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip and Leeks. Also, the early varieties 
of Radishes and Spring and Purple Top Turnip, Swiss Chard and 
Kohlrabi. 

Sow for succession. Lettuce. Cabbage and Early Cauliflower; if the 
season is favorable and the month of April not too dry the latter may 
succeed. 

Cauliflower and Cabbage plants should be transplanted ; Shallots 
divided and set out again. 

Sow Sorrel, Eoquette, Chervil, Parsley, Cress and Celery. 

Peas of all kinds can be planted, especially the early varieties. 
The late kinds should be sown in January, but they may be planted 
during this month. 

This is the time to plant the general crop of Potatoes. On an aver- 
age they will succeed better when planted during this, than during any 
other month. 

Herb seeds should be planted, tender varieties best sown in a frame, 
and transplanted into the open ground afterwards. 

Asparagus roots should be planted ; this is the proper month to sow 
the seed of this vegetable. 

Plants in the hot-bed will require attention ; give air when the sun 
shines and the weather is pleasant. If too thick, thin out so they may 
become sturdy. 

Bush Beans can be commenced with this month; Cucumbers, 
Squash and Melons may be tried, as they often succeed ; if protected by 
small boxes, as most gardeners protect them, there is no risk at all. 

Corn can be planted towards the end of this month. For n::arket, 
the Adams Extra Early and Early White Flint are planted. I recom- 
mend the Suuar varieties for family use ; they are just as large as those 
mentioned, and Stowel's Evergreen is as large as any variety grown. 

Mangel Wurzel and Sugar Beet should be sown in this month for 
stock. Sweet Potatoes can be put in a bed for sprouting, so as to have 
early slips. 



k 



For the Southern States. 



83 



MARCH. 

Sow Beets. Eadish, Cabbage, early varieties; Kohlrabi, Lettuce, 
Spinach, Mustard, Carrots, Swiss Chard and Leek. 

Also, Celery for cutting, Parsley, Koquette, Cress and Chervil. The 
latter part of the month sow Endive. Of Lettuce, the Royal Cabbage 
and Peri)ignau ; the White Coss is a favorite variety for spring; the 
Butterliead will run into seed too quickly and should not be sown later 
than the middle of February in this latitude. 

Plant a full supply of Bush and Pole Beans. For Lima Beans bet- 
ter to wait till towards the end of the month, as they rot easily when 
the ground is not warm enough, or too wet 

Squash, Cucumbers, Melons and Okra can be planted. The remark 
in regard to Lioja Beans holds good for Okra. Early varieties of Peas 
may still be planted. 

Tomatoes, Egg Plants and Peppers can be set out in the open 
ground, and seed sown for a later crop. Plant Sweet Corn. 

Potatoes can be planted ; all depends upon the season. Some years 
they do as well as those planted during last month. 

Beans are hard to keep in this climate, and therefore very few^ are 
planted for shelling purposes. With a little care however, they can be 
kept, but they ought not to be planted before the first of August, so 
that they may ripen when the weather gets cooler. When the season 
is favorable leave them out till dry ; gather the pods and expose them a 
few days to the sun. It is best to shell them at once, and, after they 
are shelled put them to air and sun again for a few days longer. Sacks 
are better to keep them in, than barrels and boxes. The Bed and White 
Kidney are generally the varieties used for drying. B.eans raised in 
spring are hard to keep, and if intended for seed they, should be put 
up in bottles, or in tin boxes, and a little camphor sprinkled between 
them. . , , 

Sweet Potatoes should be planted. 



APRIL. 

Sow Bush, Pole and Lima Beans, Sweet Corn, Cucumber, S(iuash, 
Melons and Okra. . . - 

Beets, Carrots, Swiss Chard, Radish, Lettuce, "Mustard, Endive, 
Roquette, Cress, Parsley, Chervil and Celery for cutting. 

Sow Tomatoes, Egg Plant and Pepper for succession. It is rather 
late to sow Cabbage seed now, but if sown, the early varieties only can 
be successfully used. Kohlrabi can still be sown, but it is best to sow 
it thinly in drills a foot apart, and thin out to four inches in the 
rows. 

Towards the end of this month a sowing of the late Italian Giant 
Cauliflower can be made. It is very large, and takes from eight to 
nine months before it matures, so has to be sown early. It is always 
best to make a couple of sowings, so that in case one should fail the 
other may be used. This variety is hardier than the French and Ger- 
man kinds. A good plan is to sow the seed in boxes, elevated two feet 



84 



Elchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



or more above the ground, as it will keep the cabbage-fly off. The 
plants should be overlooked daily, and all green cabbage worms or 
other vermin removed. 

Sweet Potato Slips, for early crop, can be planted out. Early Irish 
Potatoes will be fit to dig now, and the ground they are taken out of 
may be planted with Corn, Beans, Squash, etc. 

Sow Pumpkins of both kinds, the Field and the Cashaw. 

German Millet should be sown this month. The ground ought to 
be well plowed and harrowed. Three pecks of seed is the quantum to 
be sown per acre. It will be well to roll the ground after sowing, and 
the seed will require no other covering. If no roller is handy, some 
brush";tied together ought to be passed over the ground sown. For hay, 
it should be cut when in flower. Every planter should give it a trial 

MAY. 

Very few varieties of vegetables can be sown during this month. 
Many of the winter varieties will not do well if sown now. The grounds 
should now be occupied with growing crops. 

Where Potatoes and Onions are taken up. Corn, Melons, Cucumbers, 
Squash and Pumpkin may be planted. 

Nothing of the Cabbage kind, except the Creole Cabbage seed, can 
be sown this month. It is supposed to stand the heat better than the 
other varieties, but it makes only loose heads, and runs up to seed as 
early as the end of November. 

Yellow and white summer Eadish and Endive should be sown. 
Lettuce requires much water during hot weather, and if neglected, it will 
become hard and tasteless. The Perpignan is the best kind for sum- 
mer use. Okra can still be sown. 

The first sowing of White Solid Celery is to be made this month. 
The seed requires to be shaded, and if the weather is dry, should be 
regularly watered. Late Italian Cauliflower should be sown. 

Cow Peas can be planted between the corn, or the crowders in rows ; 
the latter are the best to be used green. If they are sown for fertiliz- 
ing purposes, they are sown one bushel per acre, and plowed under 
when the ground is well covered ; or sometimes they are left till fall, 
when they commence to decay, and then plowed down. 

Sweet Potato Slips can be set out, taking advantage of an occasional 
rain ; if it does not rain they have to be watered. The tops of Shallots 
will commence to get dry; this indicates that they are fit to take up. 
Pull them up and expose to the sun for a few days, and then store them 
away in a dry, airy place, taking care not to lay them too thick, as they 
are liable to heat. Lima and Pole Beans can be planted ; the Southern 
Prolific is'thebest variety for late planting. 

JUNE. 

This month is similar to the last, that is, not a great deal can be 
sown. The growing crops will require attention, as weeds grow fast. 
Plant Corn for the last supply of roasting ears. A few Water and Musk 
Melons may"be planted. Cucumbers, Squash and Pumpkin planted 
this month generally do very well, but the first requ;^e8 an abundance 
of water if-thelweather is drv. 



For the Southern States. 85 



Southern Prolific Pole Beans may be planted during this month. 
Continue to set out Sweet Potato Vines. 

Sow Yellow and White Summer Kadish, sow Endive for salad ; this 
is raised more easily than the Lettuce. 

Lettuce can be sown, but it requires more care than most people 
are willing to bestow. Soak the seeds for half an hour in water, take 
them out and put them in a piece of cloth and place in a cool spot, un- 
der the cistern, or if convenient, in an ice-box. Keep the cloth moist, 
and in two or three days the seeds will sprout. Then sow them ; best 
to do so in the evening^ and give a watering. 

If the seed is sown without being sprouted, ants will be likely to 
carry it away before it can germinate, and the seedsman be blamed for 
selling seed that did not grow. This sprouting- has to be done from 
May to September, depending upon the weather. Should the weather 
be moist and cool in the fall it can be dispensed with. Some sow late 
Cabbage for winter crop in this month, saying that the plants are easier 
raised during this than the two following months. I consider this month 
too soon ; plants will become too hard and long-legged before they can 
be planted out. 

This is the last month to sow the Late Italian Cauliflower ; towards 
the end, the Early Italian Giant Cauliflower can be sown. Some culti- 
vators transplant them, when large enough, at once into the open 
ground ; others plant them first into flowerpots and transplant them 
into the ground later. If transplanted at this time, they will require 
to be shaded for a few days, till they commence to grow. 

Sow Tomatoes for late crop during the latter part of this month. 

JULY. 

Plant Pole Beans ; also Bush Beans towards the end of the month. 
Sow Tomatoes in the early part for the last crop. Some Corn for roast- 
ing ears may still be planted. Cucumbers can be planted for pickling. 
Early Giant Caulii.ower can be sown. Sow Endive, Lettuce, Yellow 
and White summer Radish. Where the ground is new, some Turni[is 
and Euta Bagas can be sown. Cabbage should be commenced with 
after the 15th of this month ; Superior Flat Dutch, Improved Drum- 
head, St. Denis, or Bonneuil and Brunswick are the leading kinds. 
It is hard to say which is the best time to sow, as our seasons differ so 
much — some seasons we get frost early, other seasons not before Jan- 
uary. Cabbage is most easily hurt by frost when it is half grown ; 
when the plants are small, or when they are headed up, frost does not 
hurt much. It is always good to make two or three sowings- As a 
general thing, plants raised from July and August sown seed give the 
most satisfaction ; they are almost certain to head. September, in my 
experience, is the most ticklish month ; as the seed sown in that month 
is generally only half grown when we have some frosts, and therefore 
more liable to be hurt. But there are exceptions; five years ago the 
seed sown in September turned out best. Seed sown at the end of 
October and during November generally give good results. November 
is the proper month to sow for shipping. The surest way to sow is in 
a cold frame to protect the plants from frosts which sometimes occur 
in December and January. January and early part of February is 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Gaixlen Manual 



early enough to set out. Brunswick and Excelsior are the earliest of 
the large growing^kinds, and it should be sown in July and August, so 
that it may be headed up when the cold comes, as it is more tender than 
the Flat. Dutch and Drumhead. The same may be said in regard to 
the St Denis. All cabbages require strong, good soil, but these two 
varieties particularly. Brunswick makes also a very good spring cab- 
bage when sown at the end of October. The standard varieties, the 
Superior Flat Dutch and Improved Drumhead, should be sown at the 
end of this month and during next. It is better to sow plenty of seeds 
than to be short of plants. I would prefer one hundred plants raised in 
July and August to four limes that amount raised in September. It is 
very hard to protect the yc)ung plants from ravages of the fly. Strong- 
tobacco water is as good as anything else for this purpose, or tobacco 
stems cut fine and scattered over the ground will keep them off to some 
extent. As the plants have to be watered, the smell of the tobacco will 
drive the flies awav. 



AUGUST. 

This is^a very active month for gardening in the South. Plant 
Bush Beans, Extra Early and \Yashington Peas. Sow late Cabbages 
and Drumhead Savoy, also Broccoli, Brussels Sprouts and Kale. The 
Early Italian Giant Cauliflower may still be sown; but now is the 
proper time to sow the Half Early Paris, Asiatic and other early vari- 
eties. 

Sow Parsley, ^Roquette, Chervil, Lettuce, Endive and Sorrel ; but in 
case of dry weather, these seeds will have to be watered frequently. 

Continue to sow Yellow Turnip Eaiishes, and commence to sow red 
varieties, such as Scarlet Turnip, Half Long French and Long Scarlet. 

Towards the end of the month the Black Spanish Eadish can be 
sown ; also, Swiss Chard- 
Sow 7d!ustari and Cress; tho former will generally do well. All 
kinds of Turni >s and Buta Bagas should be so.vu ; also. Kohlrabi. 

The see J of all kinds of Beets should be put in the ground. 

Towards the end of the month Carrots can be sown ; but the sowing 
of all vegetables at this time of the year depends much upon the sea- 
son. If we should have hot and dry weather, it is useless to do much, 
as seed cannot ;come up without beir'g watered. White Soli 1 Celery 
should be sown for a succession, and the Dwarf kinds for spring 
use. 

Shallots can be set out during this month ; also Onion Se^s, especi- 
ally if they are raised from Creole seed. The early part of the montli 
is the proper time to plant Bed and White Kidney Beans, for shelling 
and drying for winter use. 

Early Rose and other varieties of Potatoes should be planted early 
this month for a winter crop, and the latest of Tomato plants should 
be set out if not done last month. If Celery plants are set out during 
this month they require to be shaded. 



For tJie Southern Stateti. 



87 



SEPTEMBER. 

Mc>st of the seeds recommended for last month can be so'wn this 
month, and some more added. 

In the early part Bush Beans can be planted, as they will bear be- 
fore frost comes. Plant Extra Early and early varieties of Peas. Sow 
Radishes of all kinds, Carrots, Beets, Parsnip, Salsify, Roquette, Cher- 
vil, Parsley,'Sorrel, Cress, Lettuce, Endive, Leek, Turnips, Kohlrabi, 
Broccoli, Early Cauliflower, Kale, Celery, Corn Salad and Mustard. 

After the 15th of this month Creole Onion seed can be sovvn. This 
is an iin[)ortant crop, and should not be neglected. If it is very dry, 
cover the bed, after the seed has been sown, with green moss; it will 
keep the ground moist, and the seed will come up more reguarly. 
The moss has to betaken off as the young plants make their appear- 
ance. 

Celery plants may be set out in ditches prepared for that purpose. 
Cauliflower and Cabbage plants can be transplanted if the weather is 
favorable. 

If the weather is not too hot and dry. Spinach should be sown ; but 
it is useless to do so if the weather is not suitable. 

Cabbage can be sown, but it is much better to sow in August and 
transplant during this month. 

' Set out Shallots. Sorrel should be divided and replanted. 

Sow Turnip-rooted Celery. 



OCTOBER. 

Artichokes should be dressed, the suckers or sprouts taken off, and 
new plantings made. 

Onion seed can still be sown ; but it is better to get the seed into the 
ground as soon as possible, so the plants get to be some size before the 
cold weather copies. 

Towards the end of the month. "Black Eye Marrowfat Peas can bq 
planted ; also "norlish or Windsor Beans. 

Sow "^abha-jf^, '^auli lower, BroccoU. Brussels Sprouts. Kale. Spi- 
nach, Mustard, Swiss Chard, Carrots Tweets Salsify, Leek, Corn Salad, 
Parsley, Roquette, Chervil, Kohlrabi. Radish, Lettuce, Endive and 
Parsnip. Shallots from the first planting: can be diviiled and set out 
again. Salsi'y does very finely here, but is generally sown too late; 
this is the proper month to sow the seed. The ground should be 
mellow and have been manured last spring. It should be spaded up 
very deeply; as the size and smoothness of the roots depend upon the 
preparation of the soil. 

Water the Celery with soap suds, and if the season has been favor- 
able, by the end of this month some may be earthed up. 

Sow Rye, Barley and Red Oats, Orchard Grass, Red and White Clo- 
ver, and Alfalfa Clover. Strawberry plants should be transplanted ; 
they cannot be left in the same spot for three or four years, as is done 
North. The Wilson's Albany and Longworth's Prolific are the favor- 
ite varieties for the market. 



Richard FroUclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 



The Wilson's Albany do not make many runners here, but they 
form a stool, something like the plants of violets, and these stools 
have to be taken up and divided. 

NOVEMBER. 

Continue to sow Spinach, Corn Salad, Eadish, Lettuce, Mustard, 
Eoquette, Parsley, Chervil, Carrots, Salsify, Parsnips, Cress and En- 
dive, also Turnips and Cabbage. Sui)erior Flat Dutch and Improved 
Drumhead, sown in this month, make fine Cabbage in the spring. 

Artichoke should be dressed, if not already done last month. 

Sow Black Eye and other late varieties of Peas. Frost does not 
hurt them as long as they are small, and during this time of the year, 
they will grow but very slowly. English Beans can be planted ; frost 
does not hurt them, and if not planted soon they will not bear much. 

Manure for hot-beds should be looked Hfter, and ought not to be 
over one month old. It should be thrown together in a heap, and 
when heated forked over again, so the long and short manure will be 
well mixed. The first vegetables generally sown in the hod-beds are 
Cucumbers ; it is best to start them in two or three inch pots, and when 
they have two rough leaves, transplant them to their place ; two good 
jolants are sufficient under every sash. 



DECEMBER. 

Xot a great deal is planted during this month, as the ground is gen- 
erally occupied by the growing crops. 

Plant Peas for a general crop ; some Potatoes may be risked, but it 
is uncertain whetlier they will succeed or not. 

Sow Spinach, Koquette, Eadish, Carrots, Lettuce, Endive and Cab- 
bage. 

Early varieties of Cauliflower can be sown in a frame or sheltered 
situation, to be transplanted in February into the open ground. Early 
Cabbages, such as York, Oxheart and Winningstadt, may be sown. 

To those who wish to force Tomatoes, I will say that this is the 
month to sow them. The best kind for that purpose is the Extra Early 
Dwarf Red. It is really a good acquisition ; it is very dwarfish, very 
productive, and of good size, and bears the fruit iu clusters. 



For the Southern States. 



89 



PLANTERS' AND GAEDENERS' PRICE LIST. 



Cost of Mailing Seeds. Orders for ounces and ten cent papers are 
mailed free of postage, except Beans, Peas and Corn. If any of these 

in large papers are ordered by mail postage must be paid by the pur- 
chaser, or, I will send small sized papers and prepay the postage. On 
large sized papers of some varieties of Beans and Peas, the postage 
will cost more than the papers of same. On orders by the pound and 
quart an advance of sixteen cents per pound and thirty cents per quart 
must be added to quotations for postage. 

ArtichoKe, per oz. per lb. 

Large Green Globe $0 50 $6 00 

A§par»g:tis. 

Large Purple Top 10 1 00 

Besi^llS, (DwABF, Snap or Bush). per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Six Weeks or Newington Wonder. $0 25 $0 75 

Early Red Speckled Valentine 25 75 

Early Mohawk Six Weeks 25 75 

Early Yellow Six Weeks 25 t 75 

Dwarf German Wax (Stringless) 25 5 80 

White Kidney 20 | 60 

Red Speckled French 25 f 75 

Early China Red Eye 25 |, 75 

Red Kidney 20 j 60 

Dwarf Golden Was 30 g 1 00 

Best of All 40 "^ 150 

Improved Valentine ,,.. 30 ^ 100 

Beans, (Poj^e ok Running). 5c 

Large Lima 50 g '2 00 

Caroline or Sewee 50 '-^ 2 00 

Horticultural or Wren's Egg 40 o 1 50 

Dutch Case Knife 40 & 1 25 

German Wax (Stringless) 50 3 2 00 

Southern Prohfic..; 50 | 2 00 

Crease Back ., 50 ^ 2 00 

Beans, English. 

Broad Windsor 25 75 

Beet. per oz. per lb. 

Extra Early or Bassano SO 10 SO 75 

Simon's Early Red Turnip 10 75 

Early Blood Turnip 10 75 

Long Blood 10 75 

Half Long Blood 10 75 

Egyptian Red Turnip 10 1 CO 

Long Red Mangel Wurtzel 10 50 

White French or Sugar 10 50 

Silver or Swiss Chard 10 1 00 

Borecole ©r CiirSed Male. 

Dwarf German Greens 15 1 CO 

Broccoli. Purple Gape 30 4 00 

Brussels Sprouts 30 4 00 



90 



Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Cal>l>ag"e. per oz. per ft). 

Early York 25 $2 50 

Early Large York 25 2 50 

Early Sugar Loaf 25 3 00 

Early Large Oxheart 25 3 00 

Early Winningstadt 25 3 00 

Jersey Wakefield 40 4 00 

Early Flat Dutch 25 2 50 

Large Flat BruiLswick * 30 4 00 

Improved Large Late Drumhead. ,. .. 30 4 00 

Superior Large Late Flat Dutch 30 4 00 

Improved Early Summer 25 3 CO 

Eed Dutch (for Pickling) 30 ^ 4 00 

Green Globe Savoy. 25 2 50 

Early Dwarf Savoy 25 2 50 

Drumhead Savoy 30 3 00 

St. Denis or Chou Bonneuil '25 2 50 

Excelsior .,. . 30 4 00 

Extra Early Paris 1 00 12 00 

Half Early Paris 75 10 CO 

Large Asiatic 75 10 00 

Early Erfurt 75 12 00 

Le Normand's Short Stemmed ....100 12 00 

Early Italian Giant 1 00 12 00 

Imperial 1 00 12 00 

Late Italian Giant '. . .1 00 12 CO 

Algier (fine) .1 00 12 00 

Cas'rots. 

Early Scarlet Horn 10 1 

Half Long Scarlet French 10 1 

Half Long Luc 10 1 

Improved Long Orange. 10 

Long Ked, without core . .^ 10 1 

St. Valerie 10 . 1 

Danver's Intermediate 10 1 

Celery. 

Large White Solid 30 4 00 

Sandringham's Dwarf White 30 4 00 

Large Ribbed Dwarf 30 4 00 

Turnip-Rooted 30 4 00 

Cutting 15 2 00 

Cliervil. 

Green Curled 20 2 00 

Coilards...: 20 2 00 

Core Salad 15 1 50 

Corsi. per quart. per gal. 

Extra Early Dwarf Sugar. 25 SO 80 

Adams' Extra Early. , . 20 60 

Early Sugar or Sweet , , . . . 20 75 

StoweH's Evergreen Sugar 20 75 



00 
00 
00 
80 
00 
CO 
00 



For the Southern States. 



9.1 



Corn,— Continued. per quart. 

Golden Dent Gourd Seed 20 

Early Yellow Canada 20 

Large White Flint , 20 

Blunt's Prolific, Field (New) 20 

Improved Learning 1-5 

Cress. per o2 

Curled or Pepper Grass 10 

Broad-leaved 20 

CiicuBnber« 

Improved Early White Spine .... , 15 

Early Frame, .....,..,..,... 15 

Long Green Turkey ...._...... 20 

Early Cluster _ 15 

Gherkin or Burr (for pickling) 20 

Long Green White Spine 20 

Eggplant. 

Large Purple or New Orleans Market 50 

Endive, 

Green Curled 20 

Extra Fine Curled 20 

Broad-leaved or EscaroUe 20 

Kohl Rabio 

Early White Vienna , , 25 

I^eekc 

Large London Flag ,„.... 25 

Large Carentan 30 

L»ettuce. 

Early Cabbage or White Butter 25 

Improved Koyal Cabbage 25 

Brown Dutch 30 

Drumhead Cabbage 25 

White Paris Coss , 25 

Perpiguan 25 

Improved Large Passion 25 

I^elon, Musk or Cauteloupe. 

Netted Nutmeg , 10 

Netted Citron 10 

Pine Apple 10 

Early White Japan 10 

Persian or Cassaba 15 

New Orleans Market 20 

Melon, Heater. 

Mountain Sweet , 10 

Mountain Sprout 10 

Improved Gipsey 15 

Ice Cream, (Wbite Seeded) 15 

Orange 20 

Rattle Snake 15 

Cuban Queen 1^ 



per gal 


60 


60 


60 


75 


50 


per lb. 


$1 00 


3 00 


1 25 


1 25 


2 00 


1 50 


3 GO 


2 00 



6 00 

2 50 
2 50 
2 50 

4 00 



3 00 


4 00 


2 50 


3 00 


3 00 


2 50 


3 00 


3 00 


3 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 25 


1 25 


2 00 


1 00 


1 00 


1 50 


1 50 


2 00 


1 50 


1 50 



mmmmmmmmmmmmm 



iYlh. 


40 


1 00 


3 00 


4 00 


60 


75 


3 00 


3 00 


4 00 


4 00 


3 00 


75 


1 00 


1 50 



92 Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Mustard. per oz. 

White or Yellow Seeded ■. 10 

Large-leaved 10 

NastiirtiiiBH. 

Tall ....: 25 

Dwarf. 30 

Olcra. 

Green Tall GroY\^ing 10 

Dwarf White 10 

OeiiOBi. 

Yellow Dutch or Strassburg 25 

Large Ked Wetliersfieid ■. 25 

White or Silver Skin 25 

Creole (sold out) 

Italians Oiiios3. 

New Queen 30 

Giant Bernauda 25 

§lial6ots. 

Parsley. 

Plain Leaved 10 

Double Curled ... 10 

Improved Garnishing 15 

Farseip. 

Hollow Crown or Sugar 10 75 

Peas. per quart. ^ per gal. 

Extra Early, (First and Best) 30 

Tom Thumb 25 

Early Washington 20 

Laxton's Alpha 30 

Bishop's Dwarf Long Pod 25 

Champion of England 30 

iVlcLean's Advancer 30 

McLean's Little Gem , 30 

Laxton's Prolific Long Pod 30 

Eugene 30 

Dwarf Blue Imperial ... 25 

Eoyal Dwarf Marrow 20 

Black-Eyed Marrowfat 15 

Large White Marrowfat ._^ 20 

Dwarf Sugar 50 

Tall Sugar 50 

American Wonder. , 50 

Field ©r Cow Peas ... 

Pepper. per oz. 

Bell or Bull Nose +0 

Sweet Spanish Monstrous 40 

Long Red Cayenne 4<3 

Bed Cherry 40 

Golden Dawn Mango (new) 4C> 

Bird Eve 50 



a 


1 00 


'^ 


80 




70. 

1 00 


o 


75 

1 20 


> 


1 20 


i£ 


1 00 




1 20 


t: 


1 20 




1,00 

60 

. 50 


. ^ 


• 50 


a 

X 

a; 


2 00 
2 00 
2 00 


Mark 


et price. 




per IE 




4 00 




5 00 




4 00 




4 00 : 




5 00 



For the Southern States. 



yy I 



Potatoes. 

Early Rose 

Breese's Peerless ... j Pi'iees vary accord- 

Kussets jl ing to maiket. 

Extra Early Vermont. . . ', Quotations will 

Snowflake i be given on appli- 

Beauty of Hebron ] cation. 

White Elephant .' 

Potatoes, Sweet. 

Yam ......] Piices vnry according to market. Quota- 
Shanghai or California Yam., . \ tions will be given on application. 

Paiinipkill. per quart. per gal. 

Kentucky Field ;.... 25 $100 

per oz. per lb. 

Large Cheese 10 $0 75 

Cashaw Crook-Neck 10 100 



I£adi8h. 

Early Long Scarlet 10 

Early Scarlet Turnip 10 

Yellow Summer Turnip 10 

-. Early Scarlet Olive Shaped 10 

White Summer Turnip , 10 

Scarlet Half Long French 10 

Scarlet Olive-shaped White-tipped or French breakfast 10 

Black Spanish (Winter) 10 

Chinese Kose (Winter) 15 

ROQliette 20 

Salsify (American) 25 

Spinach. 

Extra Large-leaved Savoy. . , 10 

"""■.TT Broad-leaved Flanders 10 

Sqiiasb« 

Early Bush or Patty Pan 15 

Long.Green or Summer Crook-Neck 15 



London Vegetable Marrow. 

The Hubbard.. 

Boston IVIarrow 



Tomato. 

Extra Early Dwarf Red . . . 30 

Early Large Sn^ooth Red 20 

Tilden • 25 

Trophy (selected) 40 

Large Yellow 30 

Acme (new) 25 

Paragon 25 

Livingston's Perfection 25 

Livingston's Favorite 30 



80 

80 

1 00 

80 

1 00 
80 

80 

1 00 
1 50 

3 00 

3 00 



50 

40 

1 00 

1 00 

2 00 
1 25 

1 50 

4 CO 

2 50 
50 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



94 Michard Frotscher's Almanuc and Garden Manual 



Turnip. per o? 

Early Eed or Purple Top (strap-leaved) 10 

Early White Flat Dutch (strap.ieaved) 10 

Large White Globe 10 

White Spring 10 

Yellow Aberdeen , — ■ . 50 

Golden Ball 10 

Purple Top JRuta Baga 10 

Munich, Early Purple Top , 10 

Extra Early Purple Top. 10 

Purple TojD Globe 10 

Improved Ruta Baga 10 

S^'^et and iVTediciiial Herbs* 

xinise _ . 

Balm , - 

Basil .................... , 

Bene, ...._.......,,... 

Borage ..... 

Caraway ,......,, 

Dill.,.^,. .... :....,. .'..... ........ . ......... 

Fennel . . .......................................... 

Lavender ,..,,..,.......,..,.... 

f Majoram ....... 

Pot Marigold ...,....,.,.,..... ,...,. 

Rosemary ,.,...._...,,,. ■.,.....,.- 

; Rue. ,.,.,.,,...,...,....,_. ...................... 

.Sage., ....... 

Summer Savory , .... ...... 

Thyme.. ,,,..... 

"Wormwood ...,,, ...,.,,, ,.....=..,.. 

Orass Stud Field Seeds. 

Red Clover , 

White Dutch Clover ' 

Alsike Clover , . . , , . , 

.Alfalfa or French Lucerne i 

Kentucky Blue Grass _..,...,. J ^ 

Rescue Grass ,...,., ■ ' ' " f "^ 

Hungarian Grass . , . . . . . s ^ .^ 

German Millet ..... f ^ ^ 

Eye. \% l 

Barley , . - 

Red or Rust Proof Oats ..,.-.,,,,.,,., 



per lb. 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


75 


60 


80 


50 


r package. 


10c 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


IQ 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 



Sorghum . , ........ 

Broom Corn . . . . . , 

Buckwheat. ... 

Johnson Grass . 

Tall Meadow Oat Grass, 
Meadow Fescue , . . . . 



Prices of larger quantities of seed will be given on application. Peas and 
Beans are very low if ordered by the bushel 



Fo7^ the Southern States. 



95 



The following letter on "Alfalfa" or "Lucerne," has been written 
by E. M. Hudson, Esq., a gentleman who is a close observer, and has 
given the subject a great deal of attention ; it will be found very in- 
structive. 

Villa Friedheim, 
Mobile County, Ala., September 7, 1818. 
Mr. R. Frotscheb, New Orleans, La. : 

Dear Sir :~Your letter of the 3d inst. has just reached me, and I 
cheerfully comply with your request to give you the results of my ex- 
periments with Lucerne &r Alfalfa, and my opinion of it as a forage 
plant of the South. 

I preface my statement with the observation that my experiments 
have been conducted on a naturally poor, piney woods soil (which 
would be classed as a sandy soil), varying in depth from six inches to 
one foot. But I have a good red clay sub-soil, which enables the soil 
to retain the fertilizers applied to it, thus rendering it susceptible of 
permanent enriching. 

Three years since, when my attention was first, directed to Alfalfa, 
I sought the advice of the editor of the Journal of Progress, Professor 
Stelle, who informed me that, after attempting for several years to 
cultivate it, he had desisted. He stated that the plant, at Citronelle, 
in this county, died out every summer, not being able to withstand 
the hot suns of our climate. Discouraged but not dismayed, I deter- 
mined to test the matter on a small scale at first. Having procured 
some seed in March, 1876, I planted them on a border in my garden, 
and gave neither manure nor work that season. The early summer 
here that year was very dry ; there was no rain whatever from the first 
of June to the 23d of July, and from the 2d of August to the 15th of 
November not a drop of rain fell on my place. Yet, during all this 
time, my Alfalfa remained fresh, bloomed, and was cut two or three 
times. On the Ist of November I dug some of it to examine the habit 
of root-growth, and to my astonishment found it necessary to go 22 
inches below the surface to reach anything like the end of the tap 
roots. At once it was apparent that the plant was, by its very habit 
of growth, adapted to hot and dry climates. It is indeed a "child of 
the sun." 

Encouraged by this experiment, in which I purposely refrained from 
giving the Alfalfa any care beyond cutting it occasionally, last year 
I proceeded on a larger scale, planting both spring and fall, as I have 
done again this year, to ascertain the best season for putting in the 
seed. My experience teaches that there is no preference to be given to 
spring sowings over those of diWiumn, iwovklecl only, there be enough 
moisture in the soil to make the seed germinate, which they do more 
quickly and more surely than the best turnips. Two winters have 
proved to me that the Alfalfa remains green throughout the v/inter in 
this latitude, 25 miles North of Mobile, and at an altitude of 400 feet 
above tide-water. Therefore I should prefer fall sowing which will 
give the first cutting from the 1st of March to the 1st of April follow- 
ing. This season my first cutting was made on the 1st of April ; and 
I have cut it since regularly every four or six weeks, according to the 



% 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



weather, to cure for hay. Jsleanwhile a portion has been cut almost 
daily for feeding green, or soiling. Used in the latter way (for under 
no circumstances must it eTer be pasturedj, I am able to give my stock 
fresh, green food, fully four weeks before the native wild grasses com- 
mence to put out. I deem It best to cut the day before, what is fed 
green, in order to let it become thoroughly wilted before using. After 
a large number of experiments with horses, mules, cattle and swine, I 
can aver that in no instance, from IMarch to November, have I found 
a ease when any of these animals would not give the preference to Al- 
falfa over every kind of grass (also soiled; known in this region. And, 
while Alfalfa makes a sweet and nutritious hay eagerly eaten by all 
kinds of stock, it is as a forage plant for soiling, which is available for 
at least nine months in the year, that I esteem it so highly. The hay 
is easily cured, if that which is cut in the forenoon is thrown into small 
cocks at noon, then spread out after the dew is off next morning, 
sunned for an hour, and at once hauled into the barn. By this method 
the leaves do not fall off, which is sure to be the case, if the Alfalfa is 
exposed to a day or two of hot sunshine. 

It has been m\' habit to precede the Alfalfa with a clean crop — 
usually Eutabagas, after which I sow clay peas, to be turned in about 
the last of Jul}'. About the middle of September or later I have the 
land plowed, the turn-plow being followed by a deep sub-soil plow or 
scooter. After this the land is fertilized and harrowed until it is thor- 
oughly pulverized and all lumps broken up. The'fertilizers employed 
by me are 500 lbs. fine bone-dust (phosphate of limej and 1000 lbs. cot- 
ton seed hull ashes per acre. These ashes are very rich in potash 
and phosphates, containing nearly 45 per cent, of the phosphate of 
lime — the two articles best adapted to the wants of this plant. I sow all 
my Alfalfa with the Matthew's Seed Drill, in rows 10 inches apart. 
Broad-cast would be preferable, if the land was perfeGtlv^ free from 
grass and weeds ; but, as it takes several 3'ears of clean culture to put 
the land in this condition, sowing in drills is practically the best. Xo 
seed sower known to me can be compared with the INIatthew's Seed 
Drill. Its work is evenly and regularly done, and with a rapidity 
that is astonishing; for it opens the drill to any desired depth, drops 
the seed, covers and rolls them, and marks the line for the next drill 
at one operation. It is simple and durable in its structure, and is the 
greatest labor-saving machine of its kind ever devised for hand-work. 

When my Alfalfa is about three inches high, I work it v\-ith the 
Matthew's Hand Cultivator. First, the front tooth of the cultivator is 
taken out, by which means the row is straddled and all the grass cut 
out close to the plant ; then the front tooth being replaced, the culti- 
vator is passed between the rows, completeh' cleaning the middles of 
all foul growth. As often as required to keep down grass, until the 
Alfalfa is large enough to cut, the Matthew's Hand Cultivator is 
passed between the rows. 

Alfalfa requires three years to reach perfection, but even the first 
year the yield is larger than most forage plants, and after the second 
it is enormous. The land must, however, be made rich at first : a top- 
dressing everv three vears is all that will thereafter be required. The 



For the Southern States. 



seed must be very lightly covered, and should be rolled, or brushed 
in, if not sowed with a Matthew's Seed Sower. 

Whenever the plant is in bloom it must be cut ; for, if the seed be 
left to mature, the stems become hard and woody. Also, whenever it 
turns yellow, no matter at what age, it must be cut or mowed ; for the 
yellow color shows the presence of some disease, or the work of some 
small insect, both of which seems to be remedied by mowing promptly. 
My experience leads me to the conclusion that fully five tons of cured 
hay per acre may be counted on if proper attention be given to deep 
plowing, subsoiliug, fertilizing and cleanliness of the soil. These 
things are indisi:)ensable, and without them no one need attempt to 
cultivate Alfalfa. 

In conclusion, I will remark that I have tried the Lucerne seed im' 
ported by you from France, side by side with the Alfalfa seed sent me 
by Trumbull & Co., of San Francisco, and I cannot see the slightest 
difference in appearance, character, quantity or quality of yield, or 
hardiness. They are indentical ; both have germinated equally well, 
that is to say, perfectly. 

In closing, I cannot do better than refer you to the little treatise of 
Mr. C. W. Howard, entitled ; "A Manual of the Cultivation of the 
Grasses and Forage Plants at the South." Mr, Howard, iimong the 
very first to cultivate Lucerne in the South, gives it the preference 
over all other forage plants whatever. My experience confirms all 
that Mr, Howard claims for it. Certainly, a plant that lasts a genera- 
tion is worthy of the bestowal of some time, j)atience and money to 
realize what a treasure they can secure for themselves. I confidently 
believe that in ten years from this date the Alfalfa will be generally 
cultivated throughout the entire South. 

I am, respectfully yours, 

E. M. HUDSON, 
Counsellor at Law, 
20 Carondelet Street, 

New Orleans. 



I have published the above for the past six years, and do so 
again this year, as it is an important subject and written so ihstruc- 
tively. I can not give any better information on "Alfalfa" than con- 
tained therein. . ..„. 



T i l l T ll l i iii i i i ii p iiilii i i I I I . ' Il l ii l iii r | -[ | t HT i TT l i\mmiimatmmi\ i Ti i f i lT " 1 Y iii nnM l Un t J i i 1 i W iiiiiiiiii 1 1i W i « i r ii«i - ifi i iiai ll i l ii iM l i i i ii i 1 l > i i»H>i i iliM iiii > ii i ri ii JK^^ 

98 Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



FLOWEE SEEDS, 



The following list of Flower seeds is not very large, but it contains 
all which is desirable and which will do well in the Southern climate. 
I import them from one of the most celebrated growers in Prussia, 
and they are of the best quality. There are very few or no flower 
seeds raised in this countr>% and Northern houses, which publish 
large lists and catalogues, get them from just the same sources as 
myself ; but they, on an average, sell much higher than I do. Some 
varieties which are biennial in Europe or North, flower here the first 
season ; in fact, if they do not, they generally do not flower at all, as 
they usually are destroyed by the continued long heat of summer. 
Some kinds grow quicker here and come to a greater perfection than 
in a more Northern latitude. 

Flower seeds require a little more care in sowing than vegetable 
seeds. The ground should be well pulverized and light enough not to 
bake after a rain. Some of the more delicate and finer varieties are 
better sown in boxes or seed pans^ where they can be better handled 
and protected from hard rains or cold weather ; the other kinds do 
not transplant well and are better sown at once where they are to 
remain, or a few seeds may be sown in small pots to facilitate trans- 
planting into the garden without disturbing the plants, when large 
enough. Some have very fine seeds which the mere pressing of the 
hand or spade to the soil will cover ; others may be covered one-fourth 
of an inch, according to their size. Watering should be done care- 
fully, and if not done with a syringe, a watering pot where the holes 
of the ^pout are very fine should be used. 

By setting the plants out, or sowing the seeds in the border, con- 
sideration should be taken of the height, so that the taller varieties 
may be in the middle and the dwarf kinds on the edge of the bed. 

The seeds are put up at ten cents a package, fifteen packages for 
one dollar, except a few rare or costly kinds where the price is noted. 
All flower seeds in packages are mailed free of postage to the purchaser. 
Where there is more than one color, I generally import them mixed, as 
I find that most of my customers do not wish to purchase six packages 
or more of one variety, in order to get all the colors. One package of 
Asters, Zinnia, Phlox, Chinese Pink, German Stocks, Petunia, Portu- 
laca and others, will always contain an equal mixture of the best 
colors. 



For the Southern States. 



99 



Althea iCosea, Hollyhock. This 
flower has been much improved of late 
years, and is very easily cultivated. Can 
be sown from October till April. Very 
hardy ; from four to six feet high. 

Atysisuin ii&aritaniuip. Hweet 
Alyssum. Very free flowering plants 
about six inches high, with white flowers ; 
very fragrant. Sow" frotn October till 
April. 

AiBtiriiiiioiii iitajus« Snapdragon. 
Choice mixed. Showy plant of various 
colors. About two feet high. Should be 
sown early, if perfect flowers are desired. 
Sow^ from October till March 

Aster. Queen Margaret, German Quilled. Perfect double quilled 
flovv'ers, of all shades, from white to dark purple and crimson. One 
and a half feet high. 




Althea Rosea. 





German Quilled Aster. 



Trufaut'"s Pfieony-Fiowered Aster. 



Aster* Truiaut's P^eony-Fiowered Perfection. Large double 
pffiony-shaped flowers, of flne mixed colors ; one of the best varieties, 
Two feet high ; sow from December till March. Asters should be sown 
in a box or in pots and kept in a green-house, or near a window ; when 
large enough transplant into the border. Take a shovel of compost 
and mix with the ground before planting. Put three to four plants 
together and they will show better. They can be cultivated in pots. 



^s^ 



100 



Bichard Frotscher^s Almanac and Garden Manual 




Adonis autumnalis. 

Adonis £&iituinaiaEis« Flos Adonis 
or Pheasant's Eye. Showy crimson flower, 
of long duration. Sow from November till 
April. One foot high. 

. .Ainaraiittfius cstudatus. Love Lies 
Bleeding. Long red racemens with blood 
red flowers. Very graceful ; three feet high. 

AMiaraisthiistricoaoi'. Three colored 
Amaranth. Very showy; cultivated on 
account of its leaves, which are green, 
yellow and red. Two to three feet high. 

Amafaiatliiis Mcolore Two colored 
Amaranth. Crimson and green variegated 
foliage ; good for edging. Two feet high. Amaranthus Tricolor. 

Aniaraiatliiis atropurpiireiis. Crimson Amaranth. Long 
drooping spike of purple flowers. Four feet high. 






Amaranthus Salicifolius, Fountain Plant. 



Double Daisy. 



For the Southern States. 



101 



Amai-aautSiHs SaiicifoAius. Fountain Plant. Rich colored 
foliai:?e, very graceful. Five to six feet high. Sow from February till 
June. 




Aquilegia or Columbine, 



Balsamina Camellia-Flowered. 



Aqiiileg^ia. Columbine. A showy and beautiful flower of differ- 
ent colors ; two feet high. Sow from October till March. Should be 
sown early if flowers are wished ; if sown late will not bloom till next 
season. 

Balsaisiiwa Ilortensis. Lady Slipper. A well known flower 
of easy culture. Requires good ground to produce double flowers. 

BalsaBiiina. Improved Camellia-flowered. Very double and 
beautiful colors. The strain Avhich I offer of this variety is very fine ; 
but to have them perfect they should not be sown too soon. In rich 
ground and during dry weather they require plenty of water. 

Baf saiiima casneSlia flora alba. Pure white flowers, used 
for bouquets ; about two feet high. Sow from February till August. 

Beilis Peremiiis. Daisy. Finest double mixed variety ; four 
inches high. From October till January. 

Cacalla coccinea. Scarlet Tassel Flov>^er. A profuse flowering 
plant, with tassel-shaped flowers in cluster ; one and a half feet. Sow 
from February till May. 



102 



Richard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manuad 





Celosia ciistata. 



Cacalia coccinea. 



Calendula officinalis. Pot IMarigold. A plant -^hich, properly 
speaking., belongs to the aromatic herbs, but sometimes cultivated 
for the flowers, which -^ary in different shades of yellow ■ one and a 
half feet. Prom Januaiw till April. 

Celosia ciistata. Dwarf Cock-'s-comb. "Well known class of 
flowers which are very ornamental, producing large heads of crimson 
and yellow flowers: one to two feet high. Sow from February till 
August. 


















fS-- 



C^iendnia officinalis. 



Cnerianthns Chf ri. 



Cherianttins Cheri. Wall Flower. This flower is highly 

esteemed in some parts of Europe, but does not grow very perfectly 
here, and seldom produces the large spikes of double flowers which 
are very fragrant, Two feet hi£?h. November till 3Iarch. 



U 



' ^ 5 LL ' JUja!-ia.-J!J-j--v.j^ ' r^ 



For the Southern States. 



103 



Canipaniila speculum. Bell-Flower, or Venus' looking- 
glass. Free flowering plants of different colors, from white to dark 
blue ; one foot high. Sow from December till March. 





Centaurea cyanus. Centaurea suavolens. 

Ceiitaurea cyaims. Bottle Pink. A hardy annual of easy 
culture, of various colors ; two feet high, 

Centaurea suavoleiis. Yellow, Sweet Sultan. December to 
April 

Cineraria li^^toriilae A beautiful green-house plant. Seed 
should be sown in October or November, and they will flower in spring. 
Per package 25 cents. 

Cineraria uiaritima. A handsome border plant, which is culti- 
vated on account of its silvery white leaves. Stands our summer well . 

CoIesiSt A well known and beautiful bedding plant which can 
be easily propagated by seed which produce different shades of colored 
plants. 

Dianttius Barbatus. Sweet William. A well known plant 
which has been much improved of late years. Their beautiful colors 
make them very showy. Should be sow^n early, otherwise they will 
not flower the first spring ; one and a half feet high. October till April , 





Dianthus barbatue, Dtanthus obiiwnsis, dcnibk. 



101 



Eicharcl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



Biaiitlius Chinensis. Chinese Pink. A beautiful class of 
annuals of various colors, which flower very profusely in early spring 
and summer ; one foot high. From October till April. 

Biantliiis Ileddcwig^g^ii. Japan Pink. This is the most showy 
of any of the annual pinks. The flowers are very large and of brilliant 
colors ; one foot high. Sow from October till April. 





Diantlms lleddewiggii. 



Dianthus Caryophyllus- 



, JOiantlius pliiBnaris. Border Pink. A fragrant pink used for 
edging. The flowers are tinged, generally pink or v/hite with a dark 
eye. Does not flower the first ^'■ear ; two feet high. Sow from. Janu- 
ary till April. 





I>ianthus Picctee. 



Earlv Dwarf Double Carnation Pint. 



For the Southern States. 



lOf 



Dmiitliii^ caryoplByllH*. Carnation Pink. This is a well 
known and highly esteemed class of flowers. They are double, of 
different colors, and very fragrant; can be sown either in fall or 
spring ; should be shaded during midsummer and protected from liard 
rains ; three to four feet high. November till April. 

Diaiitlfttis Picoiee. Finest hybrids. Stage flowers saved from a 
collection of over oOOjiamed varieties ; per package 50c. 

I>iaifttliiis!^ pumflla. Early dwarf flowering Carnation Pink. If 
sown early this variety will flower the flrst season. They are quite 
dwarflsh and flower very profusely. November till April. 

Delpliins&ini IitipcrialiSf fl. pi. Imperial flowering Larkspur. 
Tery handsome variety of symmetrical form. Mixed colors ; bright 
red, dark bluejmd red stripes ;li. feet high. 

Delphiiiiasni a,1acis. Rocket 
Larkspur. Mixed colors ; very showy; 
two and a half feet. 

Delpliifiiiiim CliBBieiisas. Dwarf 
China Larkspur. Mixed colors; very 
pretty; one foot high. ! November till 
April. 

Note. — None of the above three va- 
rieties transplant v/ell, and are better 
sown at once where they are intended! 
to remain. 

l>alilia. Large Flowering Dahlia. 
Seed sown in the spring Avill flower by 
June. Very pretty colors are obtained 
from seed ; the semi-double or single 
ones can be pulled up as they bloom ; 
but those seeds which are saved from fine double varieties will pro- 
duce a good per centage of double flowers. February till June. 

E^chsclioltzia CaSifoi-siica. California Poppy. A very free 
flowering plant, good for masses. Does not transplant well. One 
foot high. December till April. 




Delph.iniuui Chinensis. 





Gaillardia bicolor. 



Purple Globe Amaranth. 



106 



Bickard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



CraiBlardia bicolor. Two colored Gaillardia. Very showy 
plants, which continue to flower for a long time. Flowers red, bor- 
dered with orange yellow. One and a half feet high. January till 
April. 

Oilliaie Mixed Giilia. Dwarf plants, which flower freely of vari- 
ous colors. One foot. December till April. 

Ootnplircna alba and purpurea. White and Crimson Bateh- 
elor Button or Globe Amaranth. Weil known variety of flowers ; very 
early and free flowering ; continue to flower for a long time. Two 
feet high. From February till August. 




Geranium Zonale. 



Oerauium Zouale. Zonale Geraaimm. Seed saved from large 
flowering varieties of different colors ; should be sown in seed pans, 
and when large enough transplanted into pots, where they can be left, 
or transplanted in spring into the open ground. 

Oeraniuni pelargonium. Large flowering Pelargonium. 
Spotted varieties, 25 cents per package. 



For the Southern States. 



10^ 



>~^ 




Geranium Pelar«:onium. 
Oeranitim ocftorati§§inia« Apple-scented Geranium. Culti- 
vated on account of its fragrant leaves ; 23 cents per package. Both of 
these kinds are pot plants, and require shade during hot weather. 
Should be sown during fall and winter. 




Heliotropium. 



Helichrysum monfitrosum album. 



108 



Blchard Frotscliers Almanac and Garden Manual 



^ypsoplaila paaiiciili&ta. Gypsophila. A graceful plant with 
white flowers, which can be used for bouquets. One foot high ; from 
December to April, 

MeilotFopiiiiii. Mixed varieties with dark and light shaded 
flowers. A well known plant, esteemed for the fragrance of its flowers ; 
which are produced during the whole summer in great profusion. 
This plant is generally propagated by cuttings, but can also be raised 
from seed. Should be sow^n in a hot-bed if sown early. 

Heliclirysuisi iiionstrostisBi aBll»iiiii, White Everlasting 
Flower. Very showy double flowers. One and a half feet high. 

Helictirysuoa siaoiastrosiiin rubrutia. Eed Everlasting 
Flower. Very ornamental. One and a half feet high. December 
till April. Does not transplant well. 

Heliaaatlaus 11. pi. Double Flowering Sunflower. A well known 
plant, Avith showy yellow flowers. The double is often cultivated in 
the flower garden. The single varieties are cultivated mostly for the 
seed. They are said to be anti-malarious. Four feet high. February 
till May. - 

Iberia aaiaara. White candytuft. A well known plant raised a 
good deal by florists for bouquets. Can be sown at different times to 
have a succession of flowers. One foot high. 

Ibca'is iiaiabelala rosea. Purple candytuft. One foot, Octo- 
ber till April. 

Lieaiaaaa ga^atBdifloraaaaa i-aabriaiaa. Scarlet Flax. A very pretty 
plant for masses or borders, with bright scarlet flowers, dark in the 
centre. One foot. January till April. 

'^ 





Lobelia eriuus. 
IfObciia eriiau§. Lobelia. A 
and blue flowers, well adapted for hanging baskets or border 
foot. October till March. 



Matbiola annua, 
very graceful plant, with white 

Hall 



For the Southern State,^. 



109 I 



l,ychMB?!» ctlBsalcetlonaica. Lychnis. 
Nice plants with scarlet, white and robe 
flowers. Tw^o Ceet. December till April. 

Itupinus. Lupinus. Plants with 
spikes of tiowers of various colors. Shoiihl 
be sown soon. Does not transplant w^ll 
Two feet. December till March. 

Matliiola annua. Ten Weeks 8to( k^ 
This is one of the finest annuals in cultiva- 
tion. Large flowers of all colors, from whit«^ 
to dark blue or crimson. Should be sovrn In 
pots or pans, and wiien large enougli trans- 
13lanted into rich soil. One and a quartt'i 
feet. October till March. 

Mesem^ryanthenisiBn cryi^talM'- 
niini^ Ice Plant. Neat plant with ic\ i.ychms ciiaicodumca. 
looking foliage. It is of spreading habit (xood foi ba'-kets or beds. 
One foot. February till April. 

MbmimIms tigr&nu^. Monkey flower. Showy flowers uf yellow 
and brown. Should be sown in a shady place. Does not transplant 
w^ell. Half foot. December till March. 






Ice Plant Doable Matricaria. 

Matricaria capensis. Double Matricaria. White double 
flowers, resembling the Daisy, but smaller; are fine for bouquets; 
blooms very nearly the whole summer. Two feet, December till 
March. 

Mimosa piulica. Sensitive Plant. A curious and interesting 
jilant which folds up its leaves when touched. One foot. February 
till June. 

Mirabilis jalapa. Marvel of Peru. A well known plant of 
easy culture ; producing flowers of various colors. It forms a root 
wdiich can be preserved from one year to another. February till Junf-. 
Three feet. 

Myosotis palustris. Forget-me-not. A fine little phmr with 
small, blue, star-like flowers. Should have a moist, shady situation. 
Does not succeed so w^ell here as in Europe, of wdiich it is a native. 
Half foot high. December till March. 






110 



Fdohard FroUchei^'s Almanac and Garden Manual 




Blue Grove Lore. Petuina hybrida. 

T¥eiiiopMIa Ifiislg-wis. Blue Grove Love. Plants of easv culrare- 
Tery pretty and profuse bloomers. Brio-ht blue with white centre. 
One foot high. - . 





CEnothera Lamarekiaua. 

Neiiiopiiila maciiiata* 

Large white flowers spotted with 
violet. One foot high. December 
till April. 

N i g^ e 1 ! a dawiascesia. 

Love in a Mist. Plants of easy 
culture, with light blue flowers. 
Does not transplant well. One 
foot high. December till April. 

NaereBiibergia gracilis. 

Nierembergia. Nice plants with 
delicate foliage, and white fiow^ 
ers tinted with lilac. One foot 
high. November till April. 

CSBfliotSeera L<ainarckia- 
iia. Evening Primrose, Showy, 
large yellow flowers. December 
till April. Two feet high. 



Papaver rannncalus flowered. 



For the Southern States. 



Ill 



j Papaver SomuiferiiiUo Double tiowering Poppy. OfdifTereat 

colors; very showy. 

Papaver ranuncnlus flowered. Double fringed flowers, 
j very showy. Cannot be transplanted. Two feet high. Octo-ber till 
I March. 




Petunia Hybrida; double. 



Portulaca, 




thlox Drummondii grandiflora. 



112 



Fuchard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 



Petunia liybrida. Petunia. Splendid mixed iiybrid varieties. 
A Yerj decorative plant of Yarious colors, well known to almost every 
lover of flowers. Plants are of spreading habit, about one foot high. 
January till 3Iay. 

Feiuuia flora pleuo. Large double flowering varieties. They 
are hybridized with the finest strains, and will give from 20 to 25 per 
cent, of double flowers. Yery handsome ; 25 cents per package. Janu- 
ary till IMarch. 

Plilox Drwmiiioiidii. Dnimmond's Phlox. One of the best and 
most popular annuals in cultivation. Their various colors and length 
of flowering, with easy culture, make them favorites with every one. 
All fine colors mixed. One foot high. December till April. 

Plilox Driiiuiiioudit graiidiflora. This is an improvement 



on the above ; flowers are larger 
Very beautiful. One foot high. 




with white centre, different colors. 

December till April. 

Portal aca. A small 
plant of great bea:Uty, and 
of the easiest culture. Does 
best in a well exposed situa- 
tion, where it has plenty of 
sun. The flowers are of 
various colors, from white 
to. bright scarlet and crim- 
son. The plant is good for 
edging vases or pots; or 
where large plants are kept 
in tubs, the surface can be 
filled with this neat little 
genus of plants. Half foot 
high. Febi-uary till August. 
Portajiaca ^raiidi- 
flora fi. pi. Double Portu- 
laca. The same variety of 
colors with semi-double and 
double flowers. Half foot 
high . FebiTiarv till August. 



Double Portulaca. 





Primiila veils. 



Seabiosa uaaa. 



T^^ 



For the Southern States. 



U3 



An herbaceous i^lant of various 
Half foot high. December till 



Pi'iBifiicIa veris. Polyanthu.s. 
colors, highl3' esteemed in Europe, 
April. 

Friiiiuisi eJiinefiasflS. Chinese Primrose. A green-house plant, 
which flowers profusely and continues to bloom tor a long time; 
should be sown early to insure the plant flowering well. Difl'erent 
colors ; mixed per package 25 cents. One and a half feet high. Oc- 
tober till February. 

Pyretiai'MBBi aairea. Golden 
Feather. The flowers resemble asters. 
It has bright yelknv leaves which make 
it very showy as a border if massed with 
plants, such as coleus, etc. 

JHeseda odoi^ta. Sweet Migno- 
nette. A fragrant plant and a favorite 
with everybody. One foot high. 

Reseda graaidi It or a. Similar to 
the above plant and flower, spikes lar- 
ger. Fifteen inches. December till 
April. 

Scablosa nana. Dwarf Mourn- 
ing Bride. Plants of double flowers of 
various colors. One foot high. Decem- 
ber till April. 

Saponaraa ealabriea. Soapwort. A very free flowering an- 
nual, of easy culture, resembling somewhat in leaves the Sweet 
William. One and a half feet high. December till April. 

Salvia coccinea splendens. Scarlet Salvia or Red Flower- 
ing Sage. A pot or green-house plant, but which can be grown as an 
annual, as it flowers freely from, seed the flrst year. Two to three feet 
high. February till April. 

Sllene Arnieria. Lobel's Catchfly. A free blooming plant of 
easy culture ; flowers almost anywhere. Red and white. One and a 
half feet high. 




Reseda odorata. 




Tasetes Ei^ecta. 



Ta^etes Patula. 



IH 



Eichard Frotscliei^'s Almanac and Garden Manual 




Tag^etes erecta* African or Tail-growing Marigold. Very 
showy annuals for borders, with bright yellow flowers growing upright. 
One and a half feet high, 

TageSes patsila. Freneh or Dwarf Marigold. A very compact 
dwarf growing variety, covered with yellow and brown flowers. One 
and a half feet high. Januarv till April 

Toreiiia Foasrnierio 
A plant from Mexico of 
recent introduction, but 
which has hecome very 
I^opuiar in a short time. 
It stands the heat well, is 
well adapted to pot cul- 
ture, and makes one of the 
most valuable bedding 
plants we have. The flow- 
ers are of a sky blue color, 
with three spots of dark 
blue. The seeds are very 
fine and take a good w^hile 
to germinate. It trans- 
plants very easily. 

Vei'lbeiia Ssybridas 
Hybridized Verbena, A 
well known and favorite 
flower for borders. Their 
long flowering and great 
diversity of color make 
them valuable for every 
garden, however small. 
:ill colors mixed. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April, 

Verlieisa Striped 
ltalms£c, These are beau- 
tiful striped kinds of all 
colors with large eyes. 

TerbeBia IVivena. 
White Verbena. Pure 
white Verbena of more 
or less fragrance. One 
and a half feet high. 
January till April, 



Toreiiia Fouiniei]. 





Choicest Largs ii^nglisli Pausy. 



ViDca rosea and alba. 



For the Southern States. 



11.: 



Viiica rosea and all>a« Red and 

White Periwinkle. Plants of siiining 
foliasre, with white and dark rose colored 
rlower?, which are produced the whole 
summer and autumn. Two feet high. 
February till April. 

Viola odorata. Sweet Yiolei:. 
Well known edging i3lanc, which gener- ^ 
ally is proija.gated by dividing the 
plants ; but can also be raised from seed. 
Half foot high. Sow from January till 
March. 




Hvbiidized Verbena. 




ftNOQUREyVO 



Double Zinnia. 



v»mmmmmmmmm 



IIG 



Richard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 




^^.'■"k'./^ 







c-triped Italian Verbena. 



Viola tricolor iiaaxi- 
iiia.t L a r g' e fl o w e r i n g 

choicest PaiivV. This is one 
Mt the finest little plants in 
cultivation, for pots or the 
open ground. The^- are. of 
endless colors and mark- 
ing>. TVhen planted in the 
garden, they will show Iset- 
rer if i^lanted in masses, and 
a little elevated above the 
level 01 the garden. Half 
foot high. October mitill 
March. 

^iiiiiia eleg^aiis ti» pi. 
Double Zinnia. Plants of 
very easy culture, flowering 
very profusely through the 
whole summer and fall ; 
producing double flowers of 
all colors, almost as lax'ge 
as the flower of a Dahlia. 
Three feet high. February 
till August. 



CLIMBING PLANTS, 



Beiiiiicasa eerifera. Wax Gourd. A srrong growing vine 
V itli long -hap< 1 daik eiim- )U fruir. whi.''h l'i.-»k- v^rv ornamental. 
It 1- u-ed t^i ple-^p^'^ e-. 









V>--^ ;:;=^ 



-^■^ 



'^y^-F' 



^ ' -'M^, 



^./-i ,-;,.j/Z:j!r 






03^- 



;*■ 




I Ealioon Vine. Climbing Cobiea. 

'I €ar«lio§periiiitiii. Balloon Vine. A quick-growing climljer 

the seeds of whicji ar^' in a p^ > 1 shaped lilco a ininiaturn balloon, there- 
fore the name. 



thr' the Souilicrn States. 



117 



<['«R>«ii;ji S«!:iBB«8cBas. Climbing Oobtua. Large purple bell shaped 
tiuwers. Should be sown in a hot-bed, and not kept too moist. Place 
the seed (Mlgewise in the ground. Twenty feet high. January till 
April. 




Morning Glory. Mixed Thunbergia. 

۩divoIvm!hs iii^jor. Morning Glory. Well known vine with 
various handsomely colored flowers of easy culture. Grov; almost 
anywhere. Ten feet high. February till July. 



€BircaaB'S>i8;sa. Ornamental Gourd, 
tal Gourds of different shapes and sizes. 

CMS'curbitaL Sag:e8aarla dulcls. 
ing viiie of wliich the young fruits are 
till April. 

]>oSi€lios JLnJ]>lsih, Hyacinth 
Beans. Free growing plant, with pur- 
ple and white flowers. March till 
April. 

Ip«n>sii£i;a ^uauiocltt roi§ea. 
Red Cypress Vine. Very beautiful, 
delicate foliage, of rapid growth, with 
scarlet flowers. 

IpomsEa ^aiaEMoclit alba. 
White Cypress Vine. The same as the 
foregoing kind, except wdiite flowers. 
February till August. 

IpoiBisea Bona Mox. Large Flow- 
ering Evening Glory. A vine of rapid 



Mixed varieties or Ornamen- 

February till May. 
Sweet Gourd. A strong grow- 
used like Squasli. February 



growth, with beautiful blue 



flowers which 
Twenty-feet hi^ 
JLatliyrMs 



open in the 
h. February 
odofatus. 



and white 
evening, 
till June. 
Sweet Peas. 




Good for cut flowers. 



Hyacinth Bean. 

Beautiful flowers of all 
Six feet high. December 



co'lbrs, very shoAvy. 
till April. 

MaiiraMdia Barrlayaiia. Mixed Maurandia. A slender 
growing vine of rapid growth. Rose, purple and white colors mixed. 
Ten feet high. February till April. 



11: 



Filchard Frot^clie-r^ Almanac and Garden ITanual 



3Iaiuordica Bal««aiiiiua. Balsam Apple. A climbing plant 
of very rapid grov\-tli, producing Cucumber-like fruits, vrith warts on 
them. They are believed to contain some medicinal virtues. The3' 
are put in jars with alcohol, and are used as a qlressing for cuts 
bruises, etc. 

Liifia aciitaiii-iila. Dish Eag Vine. A very rapid growing 
vine of the Gourd family. When the fruit is dry, the fibrous sub- 
stance, which covers the seeds, can be used as a rag, Pebruary till 
April. 

§echiHiii ediiie. Vegetable Pear or Mirliton. A rapid growing 
vine with grape-like leaves, of which the fruit is eaten ; there are two 
varieties, white and green. It has only one seed, and the whole fruit 
has to be planted. 

TropsEolum iiiajus. Nasturtium. Trailing plants with ele- 
gant flowers of different shades mostly 3-ellow and crimson, which are 
produced in great abundance. Four feet high. Pebruary till April. 

T!iiiiit>eri-ia. Islised Thunbergia. Tery ornamental vines, 
with yellow bell-shaped flowers, with dark eye. Sis feet high. Peb- 
ruarv till 3Iav, 



BULBOUS EOOTS. 









Anemones. 



A II em ones. Double flower- 
ing. Planted and treated the same 
as the Ranunculus. They are of 
great varieties in color. 
Double Dutch, 40 cts. per dozen. 
French, 50 " 

Dahlias. Fine double-named 
varieties. Plants so well known 
for their brilliancy, diversit3- of 
colors and profuse flowering quali- 
ties, that they require no recom- 
mendation. They can be planted 
from February till May; they 
thrive best in rich loamy soil. They 
should be tied up to stakes, which 
ought to be driven into the ground 
before or when planting them. To 
have them flower late in the season 
they should be planted late in the 
spring, and the flower buds nipped 
off when they appear ; treated in 
this way, they will produce perfect 
flowers during fall. Undivided 
roots S4.00 per dozen . 



For the Southern States. 



119 




^^' 



Dahlias. 



CrIsMlioliis. Hybrid 
Gladiolus. One of the best 
summer flowering bulbs ; 
they have been greatly im- 
proved of late years, and 
almost every color has been 
produced ; is tinged and 
blotched in all shades from 
delicate rose to dark Ver- 
million. When planted at 
intervals during spring, 
they will flower at different 
times, but those that are 
planted earliest produce the 
finest flowers. The roots 
should be taken up in the 
fall. 

Hybrids i, mixed, first 
choice, 10c. each; 75c. per 
dozen. 

Hybrids, white ground, 
1st choice,\10c. each, $1.00 
per dozen. 

Very fine named varie- 
ties, 25c. each. 




Hybrid Gladiolus 



120 



Richard Frotschers Almanac and Garden Manual 




Gloxinias. 



Oloxiuias. These are 
really bulbous green-house 
plants, but they can be cul- 
tivated in pots and kept in 
a shady place in the garden, 
or Tvindow. They are very 
beautiful, color from white 
to dark violet and crimson. 
The leaves are velvety, and 
on some varieties very large. 
They should be planted 
early in spring ; require 
sandy ground and a good 
deal of moisture during 
flowering time. French 
Hybrids, strong bulbs, S3.Q0 
per dozen. 








Double Hyacinth. 




Single Hvacintli 



Hyacinths. (Dutch.) Double and single. The Hyacinth is a 
beautiful flowering bulb, well suited for open ground or pot culture. 
They should be planted from October till February. If planted in 
pots it is well to keep in a cool, rather dark place, till they are well 
started, when they can be placed in the full light and sun. Double 
and single, lo cents each ; SI. 50 per dozen. 



«MitittaattU«](naUB 



For the Southern States. 



121 



I^ilium t%tinjiiMa. Tiger Lily. A well known variety, very 
showy and of easy culture ; 10 cents each. 

l^iAiumti^rieffiiiiii fl. pi. This is a new variety ; it is perfectly 
double, and the petals are imbricated almost as regularly as a camel* 
lia fiovv'er. Novel and fine, 15 cents each. 




Lilium Tigi'iiium fl. pi. Lflium lancifolium rubrnm. 

JAPAN LILiES. 

liiliKSii asiraJuMi. Golden 
Band Lily. This is a very hand* 
some lily ; the flowers are large 
and white, each petal having a 
yellow stripe. It is of easy cul- 
ture. A loamy, dry soil suits it 
best, and planted one inch deep. 

The past season I had occa- 
sion to see several of this noble 
lily in bloom, and it is really 
fine ; half a dozen flowers open- 
ing at the same time, and they 
measure Jrom six to. nine inches 
across ; it is very fragrant. I ex- 
pect some fine bulbs, same as I 
had last year, imported direct 
from their native country. 

Flowering bulbs, SOo. each. 

tooiai Fsaecox. Pure white 
Japan Lily, 40 cents each. 

riibrMHE. White and red spot- 
ted, 20 cents each. ^ Lilmm am-atum. 

LiiBJuoi IstncifoUum ro§ciiBn« Rose spotted, 20c. each. 

These Japan Lilies are very beautiful and fragrant. Should be 
planted from October till January. Perfectly suited to this climate. 
10 





Almanao ar>d Go.rclen ^lanua^ 



"-;-- Psauia siiie'sisis* Chinese or herbaceous Pseonia. Herba- 
ceous I'laut? of diiiereut colors and great beauty; they should be. 
plant:Gd duringfall in ashady situation. as they flower early in spring. 

n. plamed too. la.re they will not flower perfectly ; iOc. each. " " 





HanuDCuln^. Scilla poinviana. 

KRiinociiliis. Double Flo~erincr. The roots can be i3lanted 
during fall and winter, either in the open ground or in pots. The 
Frenen varieties are more robust than the Persian, and the flowers 
are larger. The ground should be rather dry, and if nlanted in the 
open ground, it will be well to have the spot "a little higher than the 
bed or border. ' ■ ■ . :- 

Persian Eanunculus .25 cents per dozen. 

French '•■ .......40 '' 

Scilla peruviana. These are green-house bulbs a: the Xorth^ 
but here they are hardy, and do well in the oiien ground. There are 
two varieties— the blue and the white Thev throw an a shoot, on the 
end 01 which the flowers appear, forming a truss. Plant from Octo- 
ber till Januarv. BO cents each. 



<r.- 



A 




^;>> 




< 



Double Tulip, 




For the Southern States. 



123 



TaaSips. Double and single Tulips thrive better in a more North- 
ern latitude than this, but some years they flower well here, and as 
they are cheap a few flowering bulbs 
will pay the small amount they 
cost. They should not be planted later 
than December, and placed very shallow 
in the ground; not more than one-third 
of the bulb should be covered. When 
near flowering they require a good deal 
of moisture. Single and double, 50 ; 
cents per dozen. 

TiiiiJeroses. Double Flowering. 
They are ornamental for the garden, 
and very valuable for making bouquets, 
on account of their pure white color and 
great fragrance. Plant during the spring 
months. Strong bulbs, 10 cents each, 
75 cents per dozen. 




Tixberosesj double flowering 



BOUQUET PAPERS. 



I keep a; large and varied stock of bouquet papers, besides the 
different kinds enumerated below. I also have finer. qualities, satin," 
veh*et and tafleton, ranging from $1.50 to :!^4.50 each; also, some new 
styles called Parisian, finished in the same exquisite style as those 
above. They are very appropriate for bridal bouquets. 



No. 
4 

5-23 
1716 

531 
1823 
1688 
1606 
1648 
1602 

518 
1610- 
1682 
1685 
10 
1609 
1630 
1918 

552 
1677 



Inches in 
diameter. 

4! 
5 

5h 

5| 
7 

n 

n 

8 

8 

8 

9 

9 

9.V 
10" 
10 
lOi 

lO.V 
11" 



PASTED CARTOMS, 




per doz. 
$0 15 
15 
20 
15 
15 
25 
30 
30 
35 
35 
35 
40 
40 
40 
50 
50 
50 
60 
60 



Measure includes the Lace. 



per grops. 



$1 
1 
2 
1 
1 
2 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
4 
4 
4 
5 
4 
5 
5 
6 



No. 

1622 
1871 
1919 

533 
12 
1789 
1604 
1760 
1712 
1920 

501 
1693 
1922 

176 

549 
1923 

525 
18 

507 



Inches in 
diiMieter. 

lU 

Hi 

12 

12 

12 

121 

13 

13 

13s 

m 

14 

15 

15 

15 

16 

16 

18 

18.. 

20 • 



per doz. 

$0 60 

60 

60 

60 

- 60 
60 
50 
60 
70 
90 
70 

90 

1 20 
1 00 

80 

1 50 
1 40 
1 50 
1 50 



per gross 

$6 75 

6 75 

6 75 

7 00 
7 00 
7 00 

-6 00 
7 GO 
7 75 

10 00 
7 50 

10 00 
13 50 

11 00 
9 00 

15 00 

12 00 
15 00 
17 00 



121 



Richard Frotscher'a Almanac and Garden Manual 



ITALIANS, with 12 Scallops. 




Qs/ 



m^ 



ITALIANS, with 24 Scallops. 










p^i^m^'i^ 



Pleasure exolnsive of Lace. 





Inches in 








Inches in 






No. 


diameter. 


each. 


per doz. 


No. 


diameter. 


each. 


per doz. 


oH 


6 


SO 10 


SI 00 










5^ 


7-2- 


15 


1 dO 


73 


9 


$0 25 


S2 25 


76 


si 


20 


1 80 


15 


12 


25 


2 50 



ITALIANS, with Gilt or Silver Lace, 12 Scallops. 

Measure exclusive of Lace. 
Trches in , Inches in 

No. diameter. each. | >'o. diameter. oach. 

33 6 gilt, 25 cts. j 33 8 gilt, 50 cts 

4-i 6| gilt and silver, . 25 cts. I 13 9 gilt, 50 cts" 

39 7 gilt, 30 cts. I 15 9 silver, 50 cts. 



For the Southern States. 



I2i 



THE NEW YORK SEED DRILL, 
MATTHEWS PATE^^T. 




I take pleasure in calllpg your attention to a perfect Seed Drill.- 
This Drill was invented and i)erfected by the father of the seed-drill 
business— Mr. E. G. Matthews. It has been his aim for yeivrs to make 
a perfect drill and do aivay with the objections found in all others^ and 
in the New York he has accomplished it. Its advantages over other 
drills are as follows ; 

1. Marker-bar under the frame, held by clamps, easy to adjust 
to any width by simply loosening thumb nuts. 

2. Adjustable plow, which opens a wide furrow, and can be set to 
sow at any depth. 

3. Open seed conductor to show seed dropping. 

4. Bars in seed conductor, for scattering seed in wide furrows, 
prevents disturbing strong plants when thinning out— an important 
feature. 

5. Ridged roller. 

6. Dial plate in full sight of operator, and made of patent oora' 
bination white metal, which x^revents rust. 

7. Dial plate set on fulcrum, and hence holds close up, preventing 
seed from spTTIing. 

8. It has a large seed-box with hinged cover. 

9. Machine will stand up alone when not in use. not liable to tip 
over. 

It is the SIMPLEST, MOST COMPACT and EASIEST DHILL TO 
HANDLE, being only 32 inches long. 

It covers the seed better and runs very easy. 

Packed in crates for shipping. Weight about 45 pounds. Price, 
$12 00. 



126 



Pdcliard Frotscker's Almanac and Garden Manual 



IVIATTHEWS' HAfSiaCULTiVATOR. 



The Matthews Hand Culti- 
YATOE is one of the best imple- 
ments in Lise for weeding be- 
tween row crops, and for flat 
cultivation generally, and is an 
indispensable companion to the 
seed drill. 

It is thoroughly, constructed 
throughout, very durable; easy 
to operate, A boy can do as much 
• P^'i<^^ ^3 50 Boxed. ^f^itji ii^ as six Meaioith hoes. It 

spreads from 6 to 14 inches, and will entail the ground covered, even 
when spread to its greatest extent. Its teeth are of a new and im- 
proved-pattern, and thoroughly pulverize and mellow the soil. The 
depth oi cultivating may be accurately gauged by raising or lowering 
the wheels, which is quickly done by the use of a thumb screw. 




THE CHAUTAUQUA. COei*^ AMD SEED" PLA^ITIR,- 

• • .... Pateuted April 4, 1S82. 

Uneqiialled in Simplicity, DurabU'dij and Efficiency. 
The best ts the cheapest. Perfectly Simple. Simply Pesfect. 

. DiKECTIONSL 

To set the seed. cup. — Loosen -the set-screw 
and draw out the. inside or narrow gauge far 
enough to drop' the desired number of seeds. 
Then tighten the screw. For ordinary plan- 
ting, only the narrow^ gauge should be moved. 
In putting in phosphate, or a large qua^ntity of 
seed, both the nari«ow and .wide -gauges should 
be drawn out together. By tailing. "out the 
screw, the gauges may be drawn entirely out. 

In experienced or careful hands the 
machine will plant" perfectly: in any kind or 
condition of soil, mellow or soddy-, -dry.or wet. 

Tu operatethe planter.— Vivace the blades in 
the ground to the desired depth, in advance of 
you, having the "step" to the" front, as in th^ 
cut, without its touching the ground. Then 
pressing down and forward oirtlTe handle, walk 
foreward. The step will ])ress ou the ground 
and then the blades will be opened, theLseed 
deposited in the ground, and a charge taken 
for the next hill. After walking-past the plan- 
ter, still pressing on the handle, lift itfrohithe 



For the Southern States, 



127 



ground to place for the next hill ; as this is done the charge of seed 
will be HEARD rattling down upon the steel blades, and the operator will 
know the seed is readyi-for-tha.^next.hUL. Us.e the. planter as you 
would a cane, or as much so as possible. The hlaclea must always en- 
ter the ground closed, and come out open. 

Its Efficiency.— We claim that the ''Chautauqua*' is not equalled as 
a dropper and i)lanter. By actual trial in the Held Vv'itli a nurober of 
good planters, it has been shown that our machine vviH-cioyer the seed 
in different soils and at different depths, shallow or deep, better than 
any other planter. Our new and inrproved seed slide; having double 
gauges for adjusting the seed cup, enables the planter to drop accu- 
rately smalt or larg^ seed In the quantity desired. 



GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 



■0^ 




Loop Fastener, bwing socket Scytiie Suuth. 




Ladies' Set, Floral Tools. No. 5, 




Bo5\s' Favorite Set. 



128 HicMrd FroUclier's Almanac and Garden Manual 




Weeding Hoe and Eake Combined 



Cast Steel Garden TroweL 




Strawberry or Trani^planting Fork 




gpading Forli, D Handle, Excelsior Weeding Hook 




Saynor's Pruning Knife. No, 1^4. 




■'-J' 



Saynor's Pruning Knife, ^7o. 192. 



Weiss' Hand Pi'uning Shear. 



IfiM^ W/MH ' I 



■ H I' Pt ' "" IP) M: l I i^^^ ' )' ■ ■ ' .^ ■■ W ' \l I 



I' lyi ' i iii Ti i , I I t " 



For the Southern States 



129 





Slide Pnining Sliear. 



Hedge Shear. 



0. C. Hand Pruning Sliear. 



Dutcli, or Scufilp Koe. 



ti'.chard FroiJ^cher's Aimanac and Garden Jtfaaual 



PRICE LIST OF GARDEN IMPLEMENTS. 



Improved American Garden 


Syringes. 




No. A Small) 




C' ' 


Xo. 2— Conservatorv, wiih. tisro estra rceea 




l\: 


N-o, S-Gr=en ncas=, - •■ " 




^^C. Q— - • ■• - . 




7 •" 


y.^ X 




9 '•" 


HOES. 






'A . A. L-ndcn's Louisiana. No. 1 , 




....... 1 CO 


yo. 2... 




1 10 


i'o. 3 




1 20 


C. A, ^'■avna^d'= >'o. .... , 




45 


.No.2...... 




5-5 


- No. 4. ................ 




...... 6o 


Singj Briggs & Co."s Scoviirs Pattern No. 3 . . . , 




. . G ti-5 


No. 2 




. 5-5 


D. vS: H. Sccriirs Imp. Planters'. 8 incites . 




75 


Line's Crescent, No. 1 , . , . ..... . . , 


_ ,*,... 


....... 65 


No. 2 .. . - . .., 




..... 60 


Champion, vdm handle ..... 




. , To 


Sccktt, witb handle . 




. l'- 


T^o Pro'-ged Weedius, with handle. . .... 


•J 


Zv L.UU U C-J 


Ma?ic Hoe 




75 


Hcsamer Prong Hoe , 




1 50 


Scid Shank Coiton Hoes, 6 to 8^ inches. ...... 


50, 


-55 iind &:» 


RAKES. 






Mi""b:^ Iron, 8 teeth, (Ladies' 




50 


SceeL 10 " 




60 


12 " 




70 


M " 




oso 


16 - 




:•: 


y^c^deii Hav Sai;es 

- Head CMallpable Iron teeth.) 




.3 




a 50 


.——'r.^ - 




^ --r:.::., SPADES. 


-_— -"""" 




An:e5' Lrng H-^indlei 




... 1 20 


Ames' Bright . . , 




1 CO 


P.cwlands' Lons Handle- . 


. L 


60 and 75 


Ames' Short Handled 

Bowland's " 




1 00 




0" 7> 


French, steel, without Handles 




1 15 


SHOVELS. 






?.: viand's Short Handled (soaare) . 




75 


A^es' •' 




1 20 

90 


Ames' Brichi Lon^ Handled, (ronnd c:.- : 

Eo-Irini's Long Handled, ^'^rcund poiz: 







75 



For the Southern States. 



131 



SCYTHE SNATHS. 

Handles for French Scythe Blades 1 00 

No. 1. Eound Socket slip ring 50 

No. 0, Plate Heel, slip ring GO 

No. 00, Loop Fastener 75 

SICKLES. 

English (welded). No. 2 .'. . G 40 

No.3... 45 

" (riveted back), No. 1 75 

. - " No. 2 60 

No. 3.,...;....... 85 

. French 40c and 45 

SHEARS. 

Hedge Shears, 10 inches. , , 2 00 

" " 8 " 200 

Pruning ^' No. 1, (Weiss) • 2 00 

No. 2, " :.. 175 

" " No.3, " '.].,'...'. 150 

: ;" " O.G... ..' ...150 

" " (common^ 75. 

Slide Pruning Shear, large, 4 00 

*' " '• small ..'^... 3 00 

KNIVES. 

Union Knife Go.'s Budding, (wooden handle) 75 

Geo. Wostenholmes " (white bone handle) No. 1, $1 Ot); No. 2, 1 25 

H. & J. W. EingV Pruning from 60c to 1 25 

Saynor & Cook's " from 75c to 1 60 

Saynor & Cook's Budding $1 00 and 1 25 

Aaron Curkiushaw's Pruning and Budding from 40c to 80 

FORKS. 

Spading, Long Handled 1 00 

D Handle (strapped) , .' . 1 25 

Manure, Long Handled, 4 tine 75 

Short " 4 " 50 

Long '« 6" 125 

POTATO HOOKS. 



Long Handled, 6 tine 

a i( A " 



. . . . 65 

50 and 75 



SCYTHES. 



Second Quality, (blue) 



24 
26 
28 
22 
24 
26 



American Grass 



1 00 
1 15 
1 25 
80 

90 

1 00 
1 10 
90 



Blood's Bramble 90 



French, First Quality (polished), 22 inches 90 j 

i 



132 



Blchard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



FLORAL TOOLS. 

The Boy's Favorite — Hoe, Spude and Rixke .■.. = .. 2 50 

No. 5— 4 pieces, Hoe, Eake, Spade and Fork (Ladies' Set) 1 25 

TREE PRUNERS. 

Length of Pole 8 feet, weight 3| pounds 2 50 

*' 10 " '' 4i " 2 50 

Extra Knives .,...,.. .\\ .. . \.\ , each 30 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

;Pruning Saws.. .... 50, 75, 90 and 1 00 

"Exceljjior V\ ceding Hooks. ... ./. ■,....'. 25 

Tranjspiantiug Shovels..... ... ...-.■ ..25c and 35 

" Trowel.5, (American) 6 inch, 15c; 7 inch, 20 

"■ " (Eugliah) . . .....;;; .'■. . . ....... 50c and 75 

Forks... . . ,. .... No, 1, 20e;No. 2, 25 

Scotch Whetstones ... each 2o 

Common '' ..." 10 

French "' each 10c and 15 

Lathing Hh.tchets 70o and 75 

-Nottingham- Bill Hooks. . . . .■ 1 50 

Hoe Handles 25 

•Eake HcindJes . . .... 15 

Spade cv Shovel Handles 25 

6 00 



WATERING P0T3= 

Quarts, Japanned 50 

•' 65 

" " ..:...... 75 

-" " 1 00 

" 1 40 



8 •' •' 

10 '' " ..:...... 

i2 -" " 

16. - " 

.Extra Heavy, (hand made) ... SI 25, 1 50, 1 75 and 2 00 

These are made of the best material, and have very fine rose; they are made 
by a mechanic who has been furnishing this vegetable gardeners for years with 
these pots, and who ha.s improved upon them until they are peifect for the pur- 
pase. 



For the Southern States. 



133 



DHOURO, OR EGYPTlAfSi CORN. 

(Sorghum VuJgare.) 
By E. M. Hudson. 

This cereal is ordinarily supposed to be a native of Asia, but it is 
cultivated largely as well in Africa, some portions of the West Indies 
and South America. In the United States it v;as formerly planted 
quite extensively in the Southern States; but at present, many more 
times as much of it is grown in Kansas as in all the rest of this country. 
Its name varies almost v/ith the locality in which it is raised ; and the 
varieties— the results of sports or crossings— are almost as numerous 
as its designations. In Kansas, which must be regarded as the leading 
locality of its present production in this country, two varieties mainly 
are cultivated, the Red and the White. Both of these are good, equally 
so, perhaps, ualess as to proluafcivene^s, for it is generally believed 
that the Bed produces much more grain than the White. Also it is 
said that the Bed will ripen seed farther North than the White; but in 
the Southern States this is of no consideration, in as much as both in 
one season, have produced seed from which a second seed-bearing 
crop has been produced without difficulty. Nor does it appear, as far 
as actual experiment has gone, that the Bed is much, if any, more 
productive than the White in the Southern belt, at least near the Gulf 
coast. 

In nutrition the grain is but little behind wheat ; Vv^hile its yield 
per acre is greater than any cereal in the known world. From 100 to 
150 bushels of grain on rich lands is but an ordinary yield ; and it is 
claimed that in Kansas this year near 200 bushels per acre have been 
produced. This is quite possible of belief to those Vv'ho saw the mag- 
nificent panicles on exhibition at Atlanta, at the International Cotton 
Exposition last autumn. In certain portions of Kansas, where pro- 
longed droughts are usual, its cultivation has recently been success- 
fully introduced as a substitute for wheat; for drought seems to have 
but little influence to retard its growth. Indeed, when planted side 
by side with Indian Corn, the latter from drought has been curled and 
twisted almost beyond hope, the former exhibited no external effects 
of the dry season. 

Of course the yield varies with the soil on which it grows, the 
richer the soil the greater the yield ; but it will grow well on soil how- 
ever poor ; in this respect taking precedence even of the cow pea. It 
grows from six to twelve feet high, and may be repeatedly cut for 
green soiling. For, not only as a cereal, making a meal far better 
than that of Indian Corn, but also as a forage plant the Dhouro is in- 
valuable. Not only does it spring up from the stubble, when cut at 
from.3to 5 feet high, but also after maturing the seed -heads it sends 
forth shoots or suckers from lower joints, which in turn produce 
smaller heads. It is rich in saccharine matter and affords a good, 
though rough hay or fodder' when cured. Cut when very young and 
succulent it is not easy to cure ualess the weather be flue ; but, as it 
continues to grow till frost, making new suckers from the joints ail 
the time, it may be allowed to raature seed, be cut and then easily 



13i 



B'-CliOJ-d Frotscher's AJmaiiac and Gcii 



Manucd 



cure:!, forming a fair foiier with, rich grain combine i. Cat in this 
vray the stalks not -only cure more easily, but keep far better than any 
other of the family of pithy grasses. It will not become sour like In- 
dian C^rn. The most economical and practical way of curing it, is, as 
it will thus appear, to cut andtiouse stalks and seed ail together when 
the larger quantity of seed has ripened. All kinds of stock are fond 
of both the fodder and grain, and cattle est>ecially eat it with great 
avidity. 

It is cultivated either by sowing broad-cast for hay or to be cur for 
green soiiiuGr. or in drills about three feet apart. If sown broad-cast, 
one bushel of see:! to the acre, harrowed in, is sufficient. The yield 
of green stuff ani cured hay is simply enormous ; its growth is rapid 
and continuous till frost ; so that there is no fear of losing it from be- 
c^mine over-ripe. If sowed in drills one peck of seed per acre is am- 
ple. Of course, except on very rich land, the seed-heads will be lar- 
ger and finer if not sown too thickly. For grain the stalks should not 
be nearer than 12 inches in the drill, but if to be cut repeatedly till frost 
for green soiling, it is better to sow cpaite thickly in the drills. An 
inch or an inch and a half is the proper depth for covering the seed. 
Of course the ground should be well ploughed and harrowed before 
sowing. TVhen the plants are well up they should be thinned to the 
proper distance in the drills by chopping across the rows. One or two 
good ploughings is all the cultivation needed. Once -well started no 
fear need be entertained that weeds or grass can make headway— 
they will be speedily choked out by the d.ense growth of foliage. So 
rapid is its growth that the seed crop can soon be harvested and, as 
before stated, a new crop from the seed be grown the same year. It 
can be sown at any time in the far South from March to August ; it is 
not injured by a slight frost when young. The leaves, if stripped 
from the stalks, make as good fodder as those of Indian Corn, al- 
though they are not so large. If both fodder and grain are gathered, 
and 5t-o<?k turned in to fe^d on the stalks, and the remnants then 
ploughed in. it will be found that the lands will lose very little by the 
operation. It is astonishing how quickly cattle will grow fat on these 
bare succulent stalks. 

The green folder, by actual analysis, as compared with Fed Go, 
ver in blossom, is shown to be richer both in heating properties and 
fat forming principles than the clover, but not so rich in flesh produ- 
cers. The following table will show their comparative values. 



P > - 











• i" 




1.1 


•2,9 


11.9 


1.7 


3 .7 


5 . 6 



Dhouro 

Eed Clover in blossom 



•21 1 



1,4 



As Dhouro will yield more grain, fodder and stalks on a greater 
variety of lands, with less labor, in one season, and will leave more 
roush litter to be fjrned into the soil than anv- other cereal. l>esides 



For the SovtUern State:- 



being excellent food for both man and beast, it certainly deserves to 
be considered one of the most valuable cereals, and is worthy of the 
attention of every farmer in the South. Even as feed for chickens 
nothing is its equal. 

During the last two or three years a variety, v^hich experience 
shows to be radically different fronl those above described, has been 
sent out by the enterprising proprietors of the Rural New Yorker. 
The seed heads of this variety, popularly known as the "Eural Branch- 
ing Sorghum," are borne upright, in a vertical position, while the heads 
of the others are mainly drooping, bending downwards in a graceful 
curve. Also, the seeds of the Branching variety are somewhat smaller 
and more spherical than in the other kinds. In addition the seed ma- 
ture much more slowly, but in ample time to be harvested in the lower 
Gulf States before frost. The stalk growth of the "Eural Branching" 
variety is far larger than that of the others, being in fact as large as 
that of large Southern Corn ; while it obtains a height of from 15 to 16 
feet on very ordinary piney-woods lands. The leaf also is fully as 
large as that of Indian Corn, thus producing more fodder by at least 
one-fourth than Indian Corn on the same land. This variety, more- 
over, tillers or suckers at the ground enormously, each seed produ- 
cing from three to a dozen stalks, and sometimes more. When once 
well under way, it can be cut for green soiling oftener, and will yield 
at each eutting.far more fodder than the other varieties. It suckers 
and tillers m.ore and more the oftener it is cut; and, so far, it exceeds 
greatly in yield oi green fodder and hay any of the familiar fodder 
plants, not excepting perhaps even the Pearl Millet. The "Eural 
Branching" variety is, therefore, more valuable as a forage plant to 
be cut for green soiling, or for curing as hay. This variety should be 
plantotl -exclusively in drills four, feet apart, and not nearer than 18 to 
20 inches. in the drill, on account of its mammoth growth. All these 
varieties are annuals. 



THE JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE. 

(HeliantJius Taberosus.) 
BtE. M. Hudson. 

TJ"s6d as a vegetable, the Jerusalem Artichoke makes a delicious 
pickle ; and when cooked, as hereafter directed, it is esteemed by con- 
noisseurs as a luxury. 

Wash and scrape or pare them ; boil in milk and water till they are 
soft, which will be from fifteen to thirty minutes. Take them out and 
stew them for a few minutes in a sauce made by rolling a bit of butter 
of the size of a walnut in fiour, mixed with half a pint of cream or 
milk, and seasoned with pepper, "salt, or grated nutnieg. 

It is as a forage or root crop, however, that the Artichoke possesses 
unusual merits for the farmer. Its habit may be styled self-propa- 
gating, for when once established it is almost perpetual ; and this 
gives it a peculiar value. It will grow on exceedingly poor land and 



136 



Fdcliard Froischer's Almanac and Garden Manual 



produce well, while on rich land the yield is enormous. Three bush* 
els of tubers are amply sufficient to plant an acre, the large ones be- 
ing cut into pieces with two or three eyes, like potatoes. The land 
should be thoroughly ploughed, and from January to April they 
should be planted in furrows about three to four feet apart, dropping 
the tubers about eighteen inches apart, and covering with a plough. 

When they are well up, plough them as you would corn ; and when 
about a foot high, plough them again, throwing a furrow to each side, 
and you are done cultivating them forever. The first year they will 
yield a good crop (from live to eight hundred bushels), and will im- 
prove for two or three years, if the soil is good, till they double the 
product of the first year. On piney woods land seven hundred bush- 
els to the acre is only a fair yield. On very rich land 1500 to 2U00 bush- 
els, it is said, have been produced. In August the tops may be cut 
and cured for hay, which is quite equal to corn fodder, or may be fed 
green, soiled. The yield is large, and the tops are eagerly eaten by 
cattle, horses and mules. The tops, if cut, should be taken off about a 
foot from the ground. One cutting does not at all affect the yield of 
the tubers. In Novem^ber the hogs should be turned in to harvest the 
tubers for themselves, and may remain on them till March. In car- 
bonaceous matter— starch or its equivalent — they are but a trifie infe« 
rior to potatoes, as will be seen from the following table : 

In 1000 parts — ■ Flesh Formers. ,Fat Fornwi's. 



Potatoes 11 

Carrots . . — 6 

Parsnips , 12 

3Iangolds 2 . 

Sugar Beets . . 3 . 

White Turnips 1 

Artichokes 10 



189 
, 66 

70 
102 
,136 

40 
185- 



Thus it will be seen that in 1000 parts potatoes contain 200 parts of 
nutriment, and artichokes 198 parts, while turnips contain only 41 
parts. Yet the turnip, above all roots, has made English agriculture 
progressive, because they may be fed on land without gathering. The 
artichoke is unaffected in the ground by an^^ amount of cold, and, in- 
deed, should always remain there until gathered for use or planting. 

The enormous yield, the small amount of labor in cultivation, and 
the nutritious character of the tubers, make them the most econom- 
ical food for hogs that can possibly be grown. And the hogs, if suf- 
fered to root them, will be an advantage to them by breaking up and 
softening the soil as far down as pulverized. Sows with suckling 
pigs should not go on them, as the artichokes are said to injure the 
quality of the milk so as to cause suckling pigs to dwindle ; but as 
soon as they are weaned the pigs will do finely by rooting for their 
living. These artichokes are also the healthiest food that hogs can" 
have, and they need nothing else but salt, ashes and water when fed 
on them. 

Price per Qt. per Gall. per Bush. 



For the Southern states. 137 



CHUFA. 

The following remarks on Chufa are taken from a letter written by 
N. Stansbury, Esq., to the Louisiana Sugar Bowl. By my own 
experience I can indorse all wiiat is said, and recommend to all who 
have not planted the "Chufa," to give it a trial. It is the best feed to 
fatten hogs. 

They can be planted from March to June. They will yield from 
125 to 150 bbls. per acre, with good cultivation. They are very produc- 
tive and the best feed to fatten hogs. One bbl. will put as much fat on 
the ribs of a hog as two of corn. The nut ha^s a fine flavor, nearly equal 
to the pecan. 

They should be planted in rows two feet apart, and from 10 to 12 
inches in the row. When planted this way beds should be used and a 
deep water furrow left at a distance of twelve or fifteen feet. The better 
plan would be to plant three feet apart and ten inches in the drill, as 
this would afford a water furrow and not materially lessen the yield. 
The nuts to be reserved for seed or other purposes should be gathered 
before November, or the advance of frost, as the top then dies and the 
nuts v/ill not come up with the spires. 

All the nuts not needed for seed will rem-ain perfectly sound in the 
ground from September until April, where the hogs can eat at will. 
The nut sends up a single spire so much like coco, it might deceive 
even an experienced eye at its first appearance. Around this spire a 
multitude of others form rapidly. At the foot of each spire is the nut, 
never more than two inches in the ground, and seldom a half inch. 
The cluster of spires will equal in diameter the head of a flour barrel. 
As the whole surface of the ground will be nearly covered by nuts, one 
may form some idea of the yield. To lift them up, you have only to 
gather all the spires as a lady does her hair when combing it, and a 
slight pull will bring the entire cluster up vv^ith nine-tenths of the nuts 
attached. As very little dirt adheres to the roots, the nuts can be 
threshed off quite easily and rapidly. A boy of twelve or fifteen years, 
with two or three small children could gather and thresh out four or 
five barrels daily. Unlike the coco, the chufa will die out in two or 
three years, if neglected or suffered to be choked with weeds or grass. 

Price per Qt. Per Gall. Per Bushel. 



LE CONTE PEAR. 

I am prepared to furnish cuttings of this new pear, which origin- 
ated in Georgia, and is a hybrid between the "China Sand" and one of 
the finer cultivated varieties. It is propagated with remarkable ease 
from, cuttings, which make a growth of from 6 to 9 feet the first sea- 
son. The fourth year from setting the cuttings the trees should com- 
mence to bear. Propagation by cuttings is considered the best method . 
11 



Bichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



This new Soufchem pear is as vigorous in growth as the China 
Sand, and is an enormous bearer. The fruit is large, pale yellow, 
juicy melting and of good quality, doing better in the South than 
elsewhere. It bears transportation well, and commands the highest 
prices at the North. Time of ripening begins about the middle of 
July. So far this pear has never been known to blight. It promises 
to be the pear for the South. 

Price, $2.00 per hundred, by Express or freight. Postage extra by 
mail. '" 

All choice varieties of nursery stock can oe obtained and furnished 
at reasonable rates on a.pplication. 




i muu.mgjjw.i i .jj i ji i i i 



For the Southern States. 



39 



3SrO"VELTIES. 




•^ < \ .-^\ wv, \C) i\ 

New Field Corn, ' Golden Beciuty.'' 



140 



Blcharcl Frotscher's Almanac and Garden Manual 



New Field Corm, "GOtBEN BEAUTY," 
This new variet}^ which was offered for the first time last season, 
is the largest grained and handsomest of ail ijeUow corn. The ears 
are of perfect shape, with from ten to fourteen straight rows of bright- 
est golden yellow grains of remarkable size, and filled out to the ex- 
treme end of the cob. The cobs are imusualiy small ; when broken in 
half two grains will reach across. The richness of color and fine 
quality of grain make it very superior for grinding into meal. The 
grains are not of a hard fiinty type, neither are they so soft as to be 
greatly shriveled, as is the Golden Dent. The ears are easily shelled, 
although the kernels are firm on the ear, and in every respect present 
as perfect a type as could be desired. 

Golden Beauty matures early, ripening in eighty to one hundred 
days from plantings and surpasses all in size and beauty of grain. 
Price ; per.'Bush., $3.00 ; per Gall., 50c. ; per Qt., 20c. 




New Field Cofsi, "CHAMPION l^MfiTE PEAHJL," 

This is undoubtedly the handsomest and best ivldte corn ever in- 
troduced. The grain is pure white, exceedingly heavy and extra long 
and wide, two of which will more than span the cob. It is uniform 
in cross, self fertilization and maturity, giving an even grade of corn. 
It is very prolific, and yields according to manner and thoroughness 
of cultivation, the season and fertility of soil. 

Being medium in size of stalk, it can be planted much thicker than 
a larger corn, and at the same time bear a full sized ear. It contains 
no barren habits, and but little smut. The originator has established 
in Champion White Peai^l corn a short, thick stalk, with the ear grow- 
ing low upon it, which is an advantage in stormy weather. 

Price, per Bush., $3.00 ; per Gall., 50c. ; per Qt., 20c. 



For the Soathern States. 



141 




New ^Water Melon, "FHIBE OF GEOKCJIA.^' 

This Dew melon, which originated in Monroe Co., Ga., is described 
by the originator, a well known seed-grower of Georgia, as follows : 

*'I consider this melon par excellence; superior to all melons of 
which we have any knowledge. It is a dark green mottled color, 
nearly oval, ridged like an orange, grows as represented, partly upon 
its end ; is firm, will ship well, and when well cultivated in good soil, 
attains a large size." 

"What is claimed for this m.eion especially above ail others is, 
that for crispness, sweetness and flavor it stands among ail the various 
types of melons, at the head of the list.*" 

The seeds I offer are from the originator, and grown in Georgia. 

Price ; per it), $5.00 ; per oz., 50c. ; by mail, postage paid. 



New Water Melon, "MAMMOTH IRON-CI.AiD.'" 

This melon originated with a prominent melon-grower in South 
Delaware, and resembles in its markings the popular Cuban Queen. 
In shape and seed, however, it is quite distinct, being deeper and fuller 
at both ends, with seeds of drab-white color. It grows uniformly very 
large, and is an enormous yielder ; flesh very red, and of excellent 
flavor. The rind is extremely tough and hard, thus rendering it valu- 
able for shipping, while its keeping qualities are not surpassed by any 
other melon. 

Price ; per ft), $3.00 ; per oz., -tOc. By mail, postage paid. 



142 Blcliarcl FrGtscher's Almanao and Gardai Manual 





■^ji.i.id^^' . 



J^ew Water Melon, "Mammotii Iron-elad." 



^v4^ 



\^^ 








]\ew Sweet Pepper, "HUIS¥ KINO.' ^ 

This Yariety grows to a larger size than the Sweet Spanish Mons- 
trous, and is of different shape. The fruit is from 7 to 8 inches long 
by about 4 inches in diameter, and of a brig-ht red color. They are re- 
markably mild and pleasant in flavor, and can be sliced and eaten as 
a salad, the same as the Spanish Monstrous. Single plants ripen from 
8 to 10 fruits, making them both productive and profitable. A decided 
acquisition. 

Price; per lb, $6.00; per oz., 50c. 



For tlie Southern States. 



143 





> 



Frotscfier's Early Purple T©i» Twiriiip'. 

Cabbajje and Turnip Seeds have been a specialty with me for years. 
Since twenty years that I am in business, I liave tested and tried Cab- 
bage and Turnip Seeds from every reputed ^-rower in tlie United 
States. I have tried and discarded varieties which came out with high 
sounding names; but they proved inferior for this section. 

The seeds I offer of these varieties a,re of selected stock, and none 
better in the country ; tliey are grown for me by contract, and the 
greatest pains are taken to liave them up to tlie standard of purity 
and perfection. I claim that there is no better stock of Oabbage and 
Turnip seed sold, than that which I offer. 



14A 



Eichard Frotscher's Almanac and Garden JIanuoJ. 



^ »» ■» « rfT^ I I 5 




In this age of progress and improvements, on every vreii regulated 
farm or plantation, the Apiary is an adjunct of the garden.— a colony 
of bees is as common as the cabbage plot. 

The production of honey is attended -u-iih very little difficulty or 
expense. It is a pleasant and healthy article of food, and with proper 
attention the Apiary may be made a sure and largely profitable source 
of revenue. 

I therefore make no apology for introducing the card of the 
Home Apiaeies, of which Messrs. J. W. E. Shaw & Co., reliable and 
experienced bee-raisers, are proprietors. My readers will find them 
courteous gentlemen to deal with, and their orders will be promptly 
and satisfacioriiy attended to. 



;. W. E. SHAW. 



SHAW. 



J. VV.. K. SHAW ex CO., 



±^CD1\/L:E3 J^^TJ^^^X^j& 



200 COLOXIKS. 



QUEEX REARING 



.PECIAEITY 



All untested Queens from the'' "'Home Apiaries " in ISSo, will be 
reared, from Queens imported by us from Itah*, received in July, 1SS4. 
"VTe are testing their qualities, and will send out no Queen below a 
certain standard of excellence. 

Tested Queens for those who wish them for Queen-rearing, well 
reared and tested in September, October and Xovember, ISSi, for 
early ^^ Spring orders, ISSo."^^ 

^September 1st, ISSl. The Queens received from Italy prove very 
prolific. Bees lighter. Queens darker than old stock.) 

j^^Proposals from supply dealers to mail weekly a given number, 
will have our best rates and careful attention. Two hundred colonies 
will be worked during the early spring months. (February, March, 
April and May.) Order book now ready. Write for dozen rates. 

Untested Queen .^l.CK) 

Beauties, best only, tested Queen 3.00 

Safe arrival guaranteed. Prices given in February for Xuclei, 2, 
3, 4 Frames.— Langstroih. 

Address. 

J. ^T. R. §HATV & CO.. 

LOEEAUTILLE. IBEEIA PAEISH. La. 



INDEX. 



Page. 

Almanac , . 7 to 18 

Ai-tichoke 23 

Asparagus 23 

Beans (Bu.sh) 24 

Beans, (Pole) 26 

Beets ..: 26 to 29 

Boiecole or Kale 29 

Broccoli 29 

Brussels Sprouts 29 

Bulbous Boots ... 119 to 123 

Bouquet Papers 123 and 124 

Cibbiige , ...30 to 34 

Cauliflower 34 to 36 

Carrot ....,36 to 38 

Celery 38 and 40 

Chervil ... 40 

Chufa 137 

CoUards. 40 

Corn Salad 40 

Corn 40 and 42 

Cress 42 

Cucumber 42 and 44 

Climbing Plants 116 and 119 

Directions for Planting 81 to 88 

Dhouro, or Egyptian Corn .... 133 to 135 

Eggplant 44 

Endive ... 44 to 45 

Flower Seeds 98 to 116 

Grass and Field Seeds.. 73 to 81 

Garden Implements 127 to 129 

Herb Seeds 72 and 73 

Hot Bed . ". . 20 

Jerusalem Artichoke 135 and 136 

K)hlrabi 45 

Le Conte Pear 137 and 138 

Leek 46 



Page. 

Lettuce 4(! and 47 

Letter on Alfalfa 95 to 97 

Matthew.s' H.iud Cultivator 126 

Melon, Musk ...48 

Melon, Water 49 and 50 

Mustard 50 

Nasturtium 50 

New York Seed Drill 125 

Novelties 139 to 143 

Okra 51 

Onion : 51 to 53 

Parsley.. T .53 

Parsnip 54 

Peas 54 to 56 

Pepper 56 

Potatoes 58 to 62 

Pumpkin ... ...... . . 62 

Price List 89 to 94 

Price List Garden Implements .130 to 132 

Kadish 62 to 64 

Remarks on Raising Vegetables for 

Shipping 5 and 

Roquette 64 

Spinach 64 

Salsify 64 

Sorrel 65 

Squasli 65 

Seeds by Mail r 4 

Sowing Seeds 21 

Shallots 53 

Tomato 66 to 69 

Turnip 69 to 72 

Table showing Quantity of seed re- 
quired to the Acre 22 

Vegetable Garden Id 



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NEW ORLEANS 



Address all Communications to P. O, Box 1996. 



I Vegetable, Flower and Field 




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